Backyard Milkyway

Backyard Milkyway

After a day of heavy rain, some hail, and then sunshine, the sky cleared enough to let the milky way shine

©Terry L Richmond

Posted by Terry L Richmond on 2018-09-28 05:13:43

Tagged: , sky , nature , smoke , astronomy , galaxy , landscape , night , space , outdoor , moon , grass , no person , atmosphere , field , hill , exploration , astronomical object , air , outer space , calamity , tree , riding , darkness , green , explosion , star , flying , outdoors , universe , track , sun , milky way , man , dust , water , spacecraft , hillside , science , mountain , meteorological phenomenon , large , dawn , midnight , train , travel , computer wallpaper , eruption , grassy , snow , standing

International Space Station approaching the moon

International Space Station approaching the moon

This was my first ever attempt at photographing the International Space Station. My extended family are always videoing this on their smart-phones so how hard could it be? I watched a few tutorial videos and thought that I would give it a go. Following advice from these experts I used the International Space Station Transit Finder to find a potential shooting time and, luckily enough it predicted an opportunity within the next 72 hours.
I dug out and dusted off an old Nikkor 500mm Mirror Reflex lens and thought that I’d give it a try. It’s not strictly compatible with my D5200 but it works if you use manual focus and manual settings. Using its fixed aperture of F8 and 1/500 sec with ISO 1000 as a starting point I focused and started taking some test shots of the moon. Eventually I settled on ISO 1600 at F8 1/1000 second. With that sorted I waited for the appointed time to arrive. The sky was still very bright and clear but it was obvious that it was unlikely that we would see the ISS moving across the sky. The predicted time of arrival was 20.39 and 4 seconds, So, using my son’s atomic clock on his very smart smart-phone i decided to start taking photos at 20.39.00 and fire off as many as I could until 10 seconds had elapsed. A quick review left us all disappointed but when I loaded them on to the computer I found three shots with the ISS depicted and another where it is in front of the moon but cannot be seen. The first shot is where it approaches from upper right as it begins its transit, and the third and fourth shots were having passed over the face of the moon and leaving stage left. We were extremely lucky with the weather as it was a cloudless sky. Biggest problem was the fact that we could not see the ISS as the sky was still relatively bright. I’ll have another go on a future date when it is darker. If you zoom in to the space station you can clearly see it’s shape but not very much detail.

Posted by Richard 600 on 2020-06-02 09:37:21

Tagged: , Moon , Lunar , International Space Station , ISS , Transit , Nikon , 500mm Mirror Reflex Nikkor C Lens F8

AMSTERDAM DOWNTOWN AT NIGHT – 2019

AMSTERDAM DOWNTOWN AT NIGHT - 2019

Snapshot by Linden Hudson (amateur photographer) with a Canon pocket camera. Taken mid November 2019 (a cold night).

Who is Linden Hudson?

CLASSICBANDS DOT COM said: “According to former roadie David Blayney in his book SHARP DRESSED MEN: sound engineer Linden Hudson co-wrote much of the material on the ZZ Top ELIMINATOR album.” (end quote)

(ZZ Top never opted to give Linden credit, which would have been THE decent thing to do. It would have helped Linden’s career as well. The band and management worked ruthlessly to take FULL credit for the hugely successful album which Linden had spent a good deal of time working on. Linden works daily to tell this story. Also, the band did not opt to pay Linden, they worked to keep all the money and they treated Linden like dirt. It was abuse. Linden launched a limited lawsuit, brought about using his limited resources which brought limited results and took years. No one should treat the co-writer of their most successful album like this. It’s just sick.)
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Hear the original ZZ Top ELIMINATOR writing/rehearsal tapes made by Linden Hudson and Billy Gibbons at: youtu.be/2QZ8WUTaS18
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Read Linden’s story of the making of the super-famous ZZ Top ELIMINATOR album at: www.flickr.com/people/152350852@N02/
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Follow this Wikipedia link and find Linden’s name throughout the article & read the album songwriter credits about halfway down at: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eliminator_%28album%29
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Linden’s name is all over this Wikipedia page as well: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Loco
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LICKLIBRARY DOT COM (2013 Billy Gibbons interview) ZZ TOP’S BILLY GIBBONS FINALLY ADMITTED: “the Eliminator sessions in 1983 were guided largely by another one of our associates, Linden Hudson, a gifted engineer, during the development of those compositions.” (end quote) (Gibbons admits this after 30 years, but offers Linden no apology or reparations for lack of credit/royalties)
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MUSICRADAR DOT COM (2013 interview with ZZ Top’s guitarist Billy Gibbons broke 30 years of silence about Linden Hudson introducing synthesizers into ZZ Top’s sound.) Gibbons said: “This was a really interesting turning point. We had befriended somebody who would become an influential associate, a guy named Linden Hudson. He was a gifted songwriter and had production skills that were leading the pack at times. He brought some elements to the forefront that helped reshape what ZZ Top were doing, starting in the studio and eventually to the live stage. Linden had no fear and was eager to experiment in ways that would frighten most bands. But we followed suit, and the synthesizers started to show up on record.” (once again, there was no apology from ZZ Top or Billy Gibbons after this revelation).
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FROM ROLLING STONE MAGAZINE (Late 80’s)(ZZ Top management comments on the deeply disturbing treatment of Linden Hudson): "It’s an unfortunate situation," added J.W. Williams, a spokesman for the band (ZZ Top). "Here’s a guy (Linden) who was a friend. It’s hard to explain…" (end quote) (Linden comments: "Yes, it IS very hard to explain, is it not?)
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TEXAS MONTHLY MAGAZINE (Dec 1996, By Joe Nick Patoski): "Linden Hudson floated the notion that the ideal dance music had 124 beats per minute; then he and Gibbons conceived, wrote, and recorded what amounted to a rough draft of an album before the band had set foot inside Ardent Studios."
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FROM THE BOOK: SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP (By David Blayney) : "Probably the most dramatic development in ZZ Top recording approaches came about as Eliminator was constructed. What had gone on before evolutionary; this change was revolutionary. ZZ Top got what amounted to a new bandsman (Linden) for the album, unknown to the world at large and at first even to Dusty and Frank."
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CNET DOT COM: (question posed to ZZ Top): Sound engineer Linden Hudson was described as a high-tech music teacher on your highly successful "Eliminator" album. How much did the band experiment with electronic instruments prior to that album?
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THE HOUSTON CHRONICLE, MARCH 2018: "Eliminator" had a tremendous impact on us and the people who listen to us," says ZZ Top’s bass player. Common band lore points to production engineer Linden Hudson suggesting that 120 beats per minute was the perfect rock tempo, or "the people’s tempo" as it came to be known.
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FROM THE BOOK: SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP by David Blayney: (page 227): "…the song LEGS Linden Hudson introduced the pumping synthesizer effect."
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(Search Linden Hudson in the various ZZ Top Wikipedia pages which are related to the ELIMINATOR album and you will find bits about Linden. Also the main ZZ Top Wikipedia page mentions Linden. He’s mentioned in at least 7 ZZ Top related Wikipedia pages.)
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FROM THE BOOK: SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP By David Blayney: "Linden found himself in the position of being Billy’s (Billy Gibbons, ZZ Top guitarist) closest collaborator on Eliminator. In fact, he wound up spending more time on the album than anybody except Billy. While the two of them spent day after day in the studio, they were mostly alone with the equipment and the ideas."
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FROM THE BOOK: BEER DRINKERS & HELL RAISERS: A ZZ TOP GUIDE (By Neil Daniels, released 2014): "Hudson reportedly had a significant role to play during the planning stages of the release (ELIMINATOR)."
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FROM THE BOOK: ZZ TOP – BAD AND WORLDWIDE (ROLLING STONE PRESS, WRITTEN BY DEBORAH FROST): "Linden was always doing computer studies. It was something that fascinated him, like studio technology. He thought he might understand the components of popular songs better if he fed certain data into his computer. It might help him understand what hits (song releases) of any given period share. He first found out about speed; all the songs he studied deviated no more than one beat from 120 beats per minute. Billy immediately started to write some songs with 120 beats per minute. Linden helped out with a couple, like UNDER PRESSURE and SHARP DRESSED MAN. Someone had to help Billy out. Dusty and Frank didn’t even like to rehearse much. Their studio absence wasn’t really a problem though. The bass and drum parts were easily played with a synthesizer or Linn drum machine." (end quote)
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FROM THE BOOK: "SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP" BY DAVID BLAYNEY: "After his quantitative revelations, Linden informally but instantly became ZZ Top’s rehearsal hall theoretician, producer, and engineer." (end quote)
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FROM THE BOOK: "ZZ TOP – BAD AND WORLDWIDE" (ROLLING STONE PRESS, BY DEBORAH FROST): "With the release of their ninth album, ELIMINATOR, in 1983, these hairy, unlikely rock heroes had become a pop phenomenon. This had something to do with the discoveries of a young preproduction engineer (Linden Hudson) whose contributions, like those of many associated with the band over the years, were never acknowledged."
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FROM THE BOOK: ​SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP (By DAVID BLAYNEY) : "The integral position Linden occupied in the process of building El​iminator was demonstrated eloquently in the case of song Under Pressure. Billy and Linden, the studio wizards, did the whole song all in one afternoon without either the bass player or drummer even knowing it had been written and recorded on a demo tape. Linden synthesized the bass and drums and helped write the lyrics; Billy did the guitars and vocals."
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FROM THE BOOK: "TRES HOMBRES – THE STORY OF ZZ TOP" BY DAVID SINCLAIR (Writer for the Times Of London): "Linden Hudson, the engineer/producer who lived at Beard’s house (ZZ’s drummer) had drawn their attention to the possibilities of the new recording technology and specifically to the charms of the straight drumming pattern, as used on a programmed drum machine. On ELIMINATOR ZZ Top unveiled a simple new musical combination that cracked open a vast worldwide market.
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FROM THE BOOK: "SHARP DRESS MEN – ZZ TOP" BY DAVID BLAYNEY: "ELIMINATOR went on to become a multi-platinum album, just as Linden had predicted when he and Billy were setting up the 124-beat tempos and arranging all the material. Rolling Stone eventually picked the album as number 39 out of the top 100 of the 80’s. Linden Hudson in a fair world shoud have had his name all over ELIMINATOR and gotten the just compensation he deserved. Instead he got ostracized."
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FROM THE BOOK: ​SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP by DAVID BLAYNEY: "He (Linden) went back with the boys to 1970 when he was working as a radio disc jocky aliased Jack Smack. He was emcee for a show ZZ did around that time, and even sang an encore tune with the band, perhaps the only person ever to have that honor." (side note: this was ZZ Top’s very first show).
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FROM THE BOOK: "SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP" BY DAVID BLAYNEY: "Linden remained at Frank’s (ZZ Top drummer) place as ZZ’s live-in engineer throughout the whole period of ELIMINATOR rehearsals, and was like one of the family… as he (Linden) worked at the controls day after day, watching the album (ELIMINATOR) take shape, his hopes for a big step forward in his production career undoubtably soared. ELIMINATOR marked the first time that ZZ Top was able to rehearse an entire album with the recording studio gadgetry that Billy so loved. With Linden Hudson around all the time, it also was the first time the band could write, rehearse, and record with someone who knew the men and the machines. ZZ Top was free to go musically crazy, but also musically crazy like a fox. Linden made that possible too."
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FROM THE BOOK "ZZ TOP – BAD AND WORLDWIDE" (ROLLING STONE PRESS, BY DEBORAH FROST, WRITER FOR ROLLING STONE MAGAZINE): "… SHARP DRESSED MAN which employed Hudson’s 120 beat-per-minute theory. The feel, the enthusiasm, the snappy beat and crisp clean sound propelled ELIMINATOR into the ears and hearts of 5 million people who previously could have cared less about the boogie band of RIO GRANDE MUD."
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THE GREATEST ROCK REBRAND OF ALL TIME (by Jason Miller): "Sound engineer Linden Hudson researched the tempos at which the most popular rock tracks in the charts had been recorded. His data showed that there was something very special about 120 beats to a minute. Gibbons decided to record pretty much the whole of ZZ Top’s new album at that tempo. The result? 1983’s Eliminator. It was named after Gibbons’ Ford Coupé; it had been created through a unique combination of creative collaboration and data mining. And it was about to take the world by storm."
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ULTIMATECLASSICROCK DOT COM: "This new melding of styles was encouraged by Hudson, who served as a kind of pre-producer for ​EL LOCO … … Hudson helped construct ZZ Top drummer Frank Beard’s home studio, and had lived with him for a time. That led to these initial sessions, and then a closer collaboration on 1983’s ​ELIMINATOR.
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FIREDOGLAKE DOT COM: "I like Billy Gibbons’ guitar tone quite a lot, but I lost all respect for them after reading how badly they fucked over Linden Hudson (the guy who was the brains behind their move to include synthesizers and co-wrote most of their career-defining Eliminator record)."
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EMAIL FROM A ZZ TOP FAN TO LINDEN (One Of Many): "I write you today about broken hearts, one is mine and one is for you. I have been a ZZ Top fan since I was 6 years old. I purchased ELIMINATOR vinyl from Caldors in Connecticut with the $20 my grandma gave me for my birthday. I will spare the #1 fan epic saga of tee shirts, harassing Noreen at the fan club via phone weekly for years, over 40 shows attended. Posters, non stop conversation about the time I have spent idolizing this band, but more Billy G, as he has seemed to break free of the Lone Wolf shackles and it became more clear this was his baby. In baseball I was Don Mattingly’s #1 fan, Hershel Walker in football, Billy Gibbons in music. What do these individuals have in common? They were role models. Not a DUI, not a spousal abuse, not a drug overdose, not a cheater. Until I read your web page. I read Blayney’s book around 1992 or so, I was in middle school and I was familiar with your name for a long time. I didn’t realize you suffered so greatly or that your involvement was so significant. It pains me to learn my idol not only cheated but did something so wrong to another being. I now know this is where tall tales and fun loving bullshit and poor morals and ethics are distinguished and where I would no longer consider myself to look up to Billy. I love to joke and I love credit but I have always prided myself on ethics and principles… I hold them dear. I wanted to say, the snippet of UNDER PRESSURE you played sounded very new wave and I may like it more than the finished product. Well that’s all. You have reached ZZ Top’s biggest fan and I can let others know. Bummer. Cheers and good luck. James."​
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VINYLSTYLUS DOT COM: Much of Eliminator was recorded at 124bpm, the tempo that considered perfect for dance music by the band’s associate Linden Hudson. An aspiring songwriter, former DJ and – at the time – drummer Frank Beard’s house-sitter, Hudson’s involvement in the recording of the album would come back to haunt them. Despite assisting Gibbons with the pre-production and developing of the material that would end up on both El Loco and Eliminator, his contribution wasn’t credited when either record was released.
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INFOMORY DOT COM: ‘Eliminator’ is a studio album of the American rock band ZZ Top. It was released on March 23, 1983 and topped the charts worldwide. Its lyrics were co-written by the band’s sound engineer Linden Hudson while the band denied it.
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MUSICMISCELLANEOUS DOT COM: (ELIMINATOR ALBUM):
However, despite the album credits bass-player Dusty Hill and drummer Frank Beard were replaced during the recording process by synthesisers and a drum machine programmed by engineer Linden Hudson, who allegedly co-wrote much of the music with Gibbons despite receiving no credit at the time. Gibbons would later say of Hudson that “he was a gifted songwriter and had production skills that were leading the pack at times. He brought some elements to the forefront that helped reshape what ZZ Top were doing”. Hudson did no less than show the band how to stay relevant in an age where three guys from Texas with long beards (except famously for Frank Beard) and blues licks were one of the last things the contemporary market was demanding.

Posted by lindenhud1 on 2019-11-24 17:37:08

Tagged: , amsterdam , beauitiful , city , town , water , lights , netherlands , holland , europe , canal , boats , buildings , old town , moon , windows , travel , dutch , dutch buildings , crooked buildings , amazing city , amazing

Planet Earth and Its Moon

Planet Earth and Its Moon

These are my personal notes taken during a geology presentation. I give them here because they may be of some interest. Do not expect the notes to always be in complete sentences, etc.
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Planet Earth and Its Moon

Presented by: Robert Malcuit (Denison University, Granville, Ohio, USA) (denison.edu/people/robert-malcuit)

24 May 2011
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The Moon has been melted down to 600 km. It has an anorthosite crust (light-colored) – ~all plagioclase feldspar-rock. It also has mare with basalts (dark-colored). The Moon is basically black and white. The astronauts who visited observed that the Moon was “black and white and gray” – no colors.
(www.flickr.com/photos/silversolo/16875006978)
(www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/16602236679)

Earth’s composition indicates it is made of chondritic meteorites.

Most scientists have considered the Moon to have had little significance to the history of Earth. This is now known not to be the case.

Without the Moon, Earth’s rotation rate today would be 12 to 14 hours per day.

Earth’s actual 24 hours per day rotation rate is due to tidal friction from the presence of the Moon.

What is the origin of the Moon? Most advocate the impact model. Here, Malcuit is presenting a different view.

Earth is special – it has liquid water at the surface, it has free oxygen in the atmosphere, it has a highly developed biologic system, it has a strong magnetic field (Jupiter and the Sun have way stronger magnetic fields), it has a very large Moon (mass ratio of 1:81), it’s the only planet with true granite, it’s the only planet with continental crust, it’s the only planet with operational plate tectonics.
(nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/image/planetary/earth/apollo17_earth.jpg)

Moon’s mare deposits (younger) have a weaker magnetic signature than the anorthosite crustal rocks (older). This means that the lunar magnetic field died out from 3.9 to 3.6 Ga.

Earth’s continental crust mostly formed over subduction zones.

Earth plate tectonics have been operating since the beginning of the Earth, some say. Others say modern plate tectonics didn’t start until 1 billion years ago. Before that, Earth was too hot to get subduction. But, there are volcanic arcs that predate 1 billion years. However, a different plate tectonics style probably operated then.

If Earth did not have the Moon, Earth’s rotation rate would be ~12 hours/day, there would be no significant tides (only 10 to 15 centimeters from solar tides), there would be no granite and no continents, there would probably be some ocean water, and Earth would have an all-enclosing basaltic crust. Earth would probably develop bacterial life, and maybe algal life. It would have been difficult to have higher forms of life.
If the Moon was larger than it is, Earth would have 36 hours per day, resulting in extremely cold nights.
If the Moon was smaller than it is, Earth would be very different.
Earth is truly in a goldilocks zone.

Harold Urey (1893-1981), the discoverer of heavy hydrogen, said this: the Moon was a very primitive planetoid; it was a “survivor” of a class of planetoids that did not get consumed by collision with other bodies; the Moon is a major recorder of solar system events; the Moon is a captured satellite; the Moon is the “Rosetta Stone of the Solar System”.
Well, the Moon is as old as the Earth, so it is primitive. The Moon may be a little older than the Earth.

The Moon’s maria are in a straight line – the largest is first, the next largest is next, the next largest is next.
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The origin of the Moon – 4 models.
1) fission models

2) co-formation models

3) capture models – a minority view; calculations demonstrating capture have only been done at Denison University in Granville, Ohio.

4) giant impact models – a popular view; there’s actually not much evidence for it; proponents can’t make a lunar-sized body from the impact debris; if they can, they can’t get the Moon to be the right composition.
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Fission model – Darwin (1880) proposed the fission model. Early Earth spun so fast that the Moon pinched off and orbited Earth. See Wise (1963). Problem with the fission model – how does Earth get to be spinning so quickly for this to happen?

Co-formation model – was popular from 1930 to 1975, after the fission idea died out. Earth and the Moon formed from the same material. Calculations showed that this model didn’t provide a Moon in stable orbit. Plus, Earth & the Moon have different compositions.

Prograde capture model – calculations have been done by Malcuit and others. The Moon moved from a Sun-centered orbit to a geocentric orbit. The energy generated by the Moon capture event was 2.2 x 10 to the 28th power Joules.

Giant impact model – first seriously proposed in 1984 at a Hawaii conference. It has been favored ever since. It doesn’t relate to the geology of Earth or the Moon very well. The model has a Mars-mass body smashing into Proto-Earth. The impact event melts Proto-Earth completely. The debris coalesced into the Moon, which originally formed at 3 Earth radii distance, according to the model. It was 24 hours between the impact and the embryonic Moon. Earth initially rotated ~5 hours per day. No one has made a Moon from the debris, though.

Capture calculations have been done at Denison University since 1987.
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A viable Moon origin model has to explain the following:
1) anhydrous nature of the Moon

2) Potassium index (K index) for Solar System bodies (“banana index”) – the potassium content of planetary bodies decreases in a regular way in the Solar System

3) volatile element depletion patterns for Solar System bodies – water and other volatile element contents of planetary bodies decrease in a regular way in the Solar System

4) body density differences – the Moon has a 5 grams/cubic centimeter density; the Earth has a 3.3 g/cc density

5) lunar crust & mare rock dates

6) maria origin

7) asymmetry of lunar mass distribution

8) temporal patterns of lunar rock magnetization
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The discovery of Moon water was much hyped – it wasn’t quite a hoax, but it was very overstated – wishful thinking. The very thin, scattered coating of water ice on the Moon was mostly implanted by solar wind. People can’t live on the amount of water there.
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The giant impact model talking points:
1) it accounts for the masses of the Moon and the Earth (actually, it doesn’t)

2) it accounts for the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system (actually, it doesn’t)

3) it accounts for the iron depletion of the Moon (yes, it does)
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The tidal capture model talking points:
1) it accounts for the masses of the Moon and the Earth (yes)

2) it accounts for the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system (yes, it does) – a 10 hours/day rotating Earth that captures the Moon results in an angular momentum that we have now

3) it accounts for iron depletion of the Moon, relative to Earth (this is now explained by the capture model since 2003 understandings)
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The Earth-Moon system is unique. Moon origin models require an unusual explanation. Uncommon objects, like the Moon, require an uncommon origin.

Leaning toward the capture model – it was the default explanation from 1975 to 1984.

Capture vs. collision models – a David vs. Goliath scenario.
Tens of millions of dollars have been spent on computer simulations of the giant impact model, mainly at Los Alamos. There’s lots of investment in the impact model.

Earth can’t dissipate the high amounts of energy generated by the capture event over short periods of time. The Moon can.

If capture happened, where did the Moon come from? Didn’t know, originally.
When Malcuit retired in 1999, he still didn’t have an answer.

The capture scenario turns out to be far more complex and fascinating than realized 15 years ago.

Compare the Moon capture model with plate tectonics and Milankovitch climate cyclicity. It took 60 years for plate tectonics to be accepted (1912 to 1972) – a long incubation period for the concept. It took 64 years for the Milankovitch model of Ice Ages to be accepted (1912-1976) – also a long incubation period.

The capture model is simple in principle but complex in the details.
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Where did the Moon come from?
Possibilities:
1) near Earth’s orbit. If so, would get a Moon with the same composition as Earth. (which it isn’t)

2) in the inner part of the Asteroid Belt. If so, would get a Moon with ices/water. (which it doesn’t)

3) in the inner part of the Solar System, near the Sun – a near-Sun origin for the Moon was first suggested in the 1970s.
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Relevant ideas – X-Wind Model, Cool Early Earth Model, K Index for Solar System Bodies, calculations by Evans & Tabachnik (1999)

The X-Wind Model allows for an iron-poor Moon forming near the Sun. Calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are also explained by the X-Wind Model. The giant impact model can’t explain CAIs.

The most stable orbits in the Solar System have been found to occur at 0.1 to 0.2 AU (astronomical units). Orbits at this distance from the Sun are stable for up to 1 billion years. Objects that orbited the Sun at this distance (= closer than Mercury – solarviews.com/raw/merc/mercury.jpg) have been called Vulcanoids. No one has seen a Vulcanoid, it’s been thought. Let’s start the Moon in a Vulcanoid orbit.

Potassium (K) depletion trends:
carbonaceous chondrite meteorites (CI, CM, CV chondrites) have high K contents.
(www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/albums/72157645997754616)
From there, in order of decreasing K content:
Mars (mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/astro/mars2003.jpg)
Earth
Vesta (= parent body of eucrite meteorites) (upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/14/Vesta_full_mo…) (www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/14785947504)
Moon
Angra (= parent body of angrite meteorites – not yet identified, but probably in the Asteroid Belt now – www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/5867996330).
The Moon is chemically associated with Vesta and Angra (eucrites & angrites).

Primitive meteorites have chondrules, calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs), and matrix. Chondrules are 1-5 mm spherical structures in primitive meteorites (www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/14778331004). Calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) are 1-3 mm spherical structures in primitive meteorites (www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/14787764392). They are rare, except in a meteorite that fell in 1969. The matrix is fine dust – it has element ratios very similar to the Sun.

Compositions of planets & planetoids – Mars is ~90% matrix material. Earth and Venus are a combination of chondrules and matrix + some CAI material. The Moon, Vesta, and Angra have ~90% CAI compositions.

When the Sun formed (very hot) (www.daviddarling.info/images/Sun_021203.jpg), it pushed water and all other volatiles out to the snowline, at 5 AU. Jupiter picked up that material and grew like mad. (sos.noaa.gov/images/Solar_System/jupiter.jpg)

The iron line is at 0.4 AU, where Mercury orbits. ~1200° C. Get a concentration of iron at 0.4 AU – this is why Mercury is so Fe-rich (huge Fe core, compared to planet size).

~0.15 AU is where the Moon formed – inside the iron line, resulting in an Fe-depleted Moon (which it is). ~0.15 AU is a stable orbit zone.

The X-Wind Model explains CAIs – they formed at the reconnection ring shown in an X-Wind diagram and then they got swept elsewhere in the Solar System.
(www.sciencemag.org/content/277/5331/1475/F1.large.jpg)

Cool Early Earth – proposed by John Valley et al. (2002).
4.4 billion year old zircons from the Jack Hills, Australia were discovered in 1986. The zircons indicate Earth was cool at 4.4 Ga – cool enough to have surface water. Many Earth geologic time scales start with the Hadean – Earth was supposed to have been hotter-than-hell back then. 4.4 Ga zircons indicate that wasn’t the case.

The Moon capture event occurred at 3.95 billion years ago. The older lunar maria rocks came into existence then.
Earth’s primitive crust got recycled at 3.95 Ga – this is seen in Australia, Greenland, and South Africa.
Earth was moonless for 600 million years after its formation. Lunar capture started at 3.95 Ga.

Looking at the relationship between Mercury, the Moon, and Vesta. The spacecraft Dawn will orbit Vesta soon.

SPZ – the stable planetoid zone inside Mercury’s orbit. Angra was closest to the Sun, Luna (the Moon) was a bit farther out, and Vesta was a bit farther than that – all inside the orbit of Mercury. The reconnection ring (= CAI formation locality) is inside the orbit of Angra. The area had fluctuating ~1600° K temperatures. There were other bodies in the SPZ – “No Names”.

Why did the Moon get melted to a depth of 600 km? The same thing happened to Mercury.
The Sun entered a T-Tauri stage, after the X-Wind stage. X-Wind involved generation of x-rays and more powerful radiation. The T-Tauri stage was a slow burn – microwave radiation. Luna (Moon), Vesta, and Angra were heated & baked from the outside-in by the T-Tauri event. This melted the top 600 km of the Moon. Luna then had a stronger electromagnetic field.

Luna formed at 0.15 AU and ended up as a Moon of the Earth at 1 AU by prograde gravitational capture – a “benign estrangement” scenario.

Capture models in general – captured bodies can enter a retrograde orbit or a prograde orbit – there’s a 50-50 chance for each. Happily for us, the Moon was captured in a prograde orbit – it has been getting farther away from Earth through time. If it was captured in a retrograde orbit, the Moon would be getting closer to Earth through time – that would be bad.

Vesta was born at 0.19 AU and ended up at 2.4 AU, in the Asteroid Belt. Vesta was tossed around Mercury and Venus. Vesta is too small to have been captured. Options for Vesta – collision with larger bodies or passed by larger bodies. The latter is what happened – it’s now in the Asteroid Belt.

Angra was born at 0.1 AU – it’s current location is unknown, but it is probably in the Asteroid Belt.

Adonis – a 0.5 Moon-mass body born at ~0.22 AU. Was gravitationally captured by Venus (0.7 AU) into a retrograde orbit. Adonis approached Venus through geologic time, and eventually coalesced with Venus at ~1 billion years to ~500 million years ago. This is why Venus is a basalt cauldron – a smoldering mass – campfire.andycamper.com/wp-content/media/2011/05/venus.jpg. This is a “fatal attraction” scenario – retrograde capture + coalescence at half a billion to a billion years ago.

Earth would have been like Venus & Adonis if the Moon was captured in retrograde orbit.

So, looking at the Moon as a vulcanoid. Vulcanoids were named in 1978. No one’s seen a vulcanoid. Well, we have been seeing a vulcanoid all this time.

The Moon has a blow-out hole (Mare Orientale – cumbriansky.files.wordpress.com/2012/12/screenshot_2012-1…) – material necked out by tidal disruption and fell back to the Moon’s surface to form the maria in a great circle pattern. ~18 orbits after Moon capture, there was possibly a solar perturbation that pushed the Moon closer to Earth – got maria splashes.

The X-Wind Model well explains CAIs and dehydration events. It doesn’t explain chondrules. The T-Tauri phase microwaved the Moon.

Where did chondrules form? After the dehydration event, the entire inner Solar System must have been chondrules. Chondrules formed by shock waves in the inner Solar System. The shock waves may have originated during Jupiter planetesimal coalescence events. Jupiter formed from large balls of hydrogen and helium and solid material. If two of these balls collided, would get a shock wave. With another ball collision, another shock wave was generated. Chondrules formed by melting of material by the shock waves, like a lightning strike, resulting in droplets in space. They cooled quickly into glass and later crystallized. Very rapid formation for chondrules.

The potassium index pattern developed before chondrules formed.
Earth and Venus are ~the same.
Moon, Adonis, Vesta, Angra – 4 vulcanoids.
Capture is simple in principle. Capture is complex in detail.
Earth has a large Moon – prograde capture.
Triton, a moon of Neptune, was captured for sure – it’s going the wrong way, orbit-wise.
Most of the energy generated by the Moon capture event was absorbed by the Moon.
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See Professor Malcuit’s new book, published in 2015: "The Twin Sister Planets Venus and Earth, Why Are They So Different?" (www.springer.com/us/book/9783319113876)
This book summarizes the contents of the above talk.
________________________________________

Summary of talk provided by Professor Malcuit: The origin of the Moon is still an unsolved problem in the natural sciences. In recent years many investigators have jumped onto the “bandwagon” to espouse the merits of the Giant Impact Model. This model proposes that the Moon was formed as a result of a collision of a mars-mass body with the primitive earth about 30 million years after the formation of the Earth. Although the Giant Impact Model appears to be physically possible, at least in part, the model does not relate very well to the rock records of the Earth or the Moon.

The other physically possible model is the Gravitational Capture Model. Most of the recent work, 1972 to present, has been done at Denison University as a combined geology and physics project. Our Capture Model is now undergoing a “renaissance” in light of (1) the Potassium Index for solar system bodies (~1995), (2) the discovery of a multitude of stable planetoid orbits between the orbits of planet Mercury and the Sun (~1999), and (3) the Cool Early Earth Model (~2002). In other words, the Gravitational Capture Model does relate to a number of features of the rock records of both the Earth and the Moon.

This presentation will summarize some of the scientific evidence in favor of the Gravitational Capture Model and compare and contrast this information with the main features of Giant Impact Model.
________________________________________

Biographical information on Professor Malcuit: Bob Malcuit received his Bachelor and Master degrees in Geology from Kent State Univeristy in 1968 and 1970 and his Ph.D in Geology from Michigan State University in 1973. Bob’s current research is in Planetary Geology and one of the themes of several of his projects is that “THE MOON IS THE ROSETTA STONE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM”. He inherited this concept from Harold Urey (American chemist) and Zdenek Kopal (Czech astronomer). In other words, Bob thinks that the Earth’s Moon is one of the most important recorders of scientific information in the Solar System (a minority view at the present time). He is also promoting the view that without a large satellite like our Moon, planet Earth would be very different from what it is today. For example, without the Moon and the associated rock and ocean tidal action, the Earth would probably not be habitable for life forms higher than bacteria and algae.
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Posted by James St. John on 2015-09-12 13:05:40

Tagged: , Moon , Luna , Earth , Mercury , Venus , Mars , Astteroid , Belt , asteroids , Jupiter , origin , capture , model , collision , giant , impact , mare , basalt , anorthosite , crust , meteorite , meteorites , Angra , Adonis , Vulcanoid , Vulcanoids , Sun , orbit , orbits

Mars with polar ice caps

Mars with polar ice caps

Mars with polar ice caps visible. Dark areas are dust storms while redish is planet surace. This is my first Mars shoot and the final images are a bit blurred as I was taking these as our sun was coming up (~6:30a). Better images to come.

Posted by eric_milbrandt on 2018-03-12 10:37:32

Tagged: , ~Astrophotography , computer wallpaper , Any Vision , darkness , phenomenon , atmosphere of earth , moonlight , sky , atmosphere , Labels , A , night , C , D , moon , M , O , N , daytime , S , Mars , astronomy , outer space , space , macro photography , U , universe , planet , P , midnight , astronomical object , celestial event , ~Solar System

TEXAS MOON OVER MUDDY WATER

TEXAS MOON OVER MUDDY WATER

Photo taken by Linden Hudson’s son (Bryan) while having a father and son drive through countryside. This was taken near Columbus Texas (not far from La Grange). The moon is barely visible, but can be seen in the water too. Linden and Bryan are amateur photographers, it’s just for fun. Texas is beautiful.

Who is Linden Hudson?

CLASSICBANDS DOT COM said: “According to former roadie David Blayney in his book SHARP DRESSED MEN: sound engineer Linden Hudson co-wrote much of the material on the ZZ Top ELIMINATOR album.” (end quote)

(ZZ Top never opted to give Linden credit, which would have been THE decent thing to do. It would have helped Linden’s career as well. The band and management worked ruthlessly to take FULL credit for the hugely successful album which Linden had spent a good deal of time working on. Linden works daily to tell this story. Also, the band did not opt to pay Linden, they worked to keep all the money and they treated Linden like dirt. It was abuse. Linden launched a limited lawsuit, brought about using his limited resources which brought limited results and took years. No one should treat the co-writer of their most successful album like this. It’s just deeply fucked up.)
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(see full story at Linden’s website: www.linden-hudson.com/birth-of-the-zz-top-eliminator-album )
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Hear the original ZZ Top ELIMINATOR writing/rehearsal tapes made by Linden Hudson and Billy Gibbons at: www.flickr.com/photos/152350852@N02/35711891332/in/photol…
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LICKLIBRARY DOT COM (2013 interview) ZZ TOP’S BILLY GIBBONS SAID: “the Eliminator sessions in 1983 were guided largely by another one of our associates, Linden Hudson, a gifted engineer, during the development of those compositions.” (end quote) (Gibbons admits this after 30 years, but offers Linden no apology or reparations for lack of credit/royalties)
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MUSICRADAR DOT COM (2013 interview with ZZ Top’s guitarist Billy Gibbons broke 30 years of silence about Linden Hudson introducing synthesizers into ZZ Top’s sound.) Gibbons said: “This was a really interesting turning point. We had befriended somebody who would become an influential associate, a guy named Linden Hudson. He was a gifted songwriter and had production skills that were leading the pack at times. He brought some elements to the forefront that helped reshape what ZZ Top were doing, starting in the studio and eventually to the live stage. Linden had no fear and was eager to experiment in ways that would frighten most bands. But we followed suit, and the synthesizers started to show up on record.” (once again, there was no apology from ZZ Top or Billy Gibbons after this revelation).
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TEXAS MONTHLY MAGAZINE (Dec 1996, By Joe Nick Patoski): "Linden Hudson floated the notion that the ideal dance music had 124 beats per minute; then he and Gibbons conceived, wrote, and recorded what amounted to a rough draft of an album before the band had set foot inside Ardent Studios."
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FROM THE BOOK: SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP (By David Blayney) : "Probably the most dramatic development in ZZ Top recording approaches came about as Eliminator was constructed. What had gone on before evolutionary; this change was revolutionary. ZZ Top got what amounted to a new bandsman (Linden) for the album, unknown to the world at large and at first even to Dusty and Frank."
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CNET DOT COM: (question posed to ZZ Top): Sound engineer Linden Hudson was described as a high-tech music teacher on your highly successful "Eliminator" album. How much did the band experiment with electronic instruments prior to that album?
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THE HOUSTON CHRONICLE, MARCH 2018: "Eliminator" had a tremendous impact on us and the people who listen to us," says ZZ Top’s bass player. Common band lore points to production engineer Linden Hudson suggesting that 120 beats per minute was the perfect rock tempo, or "the people’s tempo" as it came to be known.
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FROM THE BOOK: SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP by David Blayney: (page 227): "…the song LEGS Linden Hudson introduced the pumping synthesizer effect."
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(Search Linden Hudson in the various ZZ Top Wikipedia pages which are related to the ELIMINATOR album and you will find bits about Linden. Also the main ZZ Top Wikipedia page mentions Linden. He’s mentioned in at least 7 ZZ Top related Wikipedia pages.)
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FROM THE BOOK: SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP By David Blayney: "Linden found himself in the position of being Billy’s (Billy Gibbons, ZZ Top guitarist) closest collaborator on Eliminator. In fact, he wound up spending more time on the album than anybody except Billy. While the two of them spent day after day in the studio, they were mostly alone with the equipment and the ideas."
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FROM THE BOOK: BEER DRINKERS & HELL RAISERS: A ZZ TOP GUIDE (By Neil Daniels, released 2014): "Hudson reportedly had a significant role to play during the planning stages of the release (ELIMINATOR)."
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FROM THE BOOK: ZZ TOP – BAD AND WORLDWIDE (ROLLING STONE PRESS, WRITTEN BY DEBORAH FROST): "Linden was always doing computer studies. It was something that fascinated him, like studio technology. He thought he might understand the components of popular songs better if he fed certain data into his computer. It might help him understand what hits (song releases) of any given period share. He first found out about speed; all the songs he studied deviated no more than one beat from 120 beats per minute. Billy immediately started to write some songs with 120 beats per minute. Linden helped out with a couple, like UNDER PRESSURE and SHARP DRESSED MAN. Someone had to help Billy out. Dusty and Frank didn’t even like to rehearse much. Their studio absence wasn’t really a problem though. The bass and drum parts were easily played with a synthesizer or Linn drum machine." (end quote)
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FROM THE BOOK: "SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP" BY DAVID BLAYNEY: "After his quantitative revelations, Linden informally but instantly became ZZ Top’s rehearsal hall theoretician, producer, and engineer." (end quote)
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FROM THE BOOK: "ZZ TOP – BAD AND WORLDWIDE" (ROLLING STONE PRESS, BY DEBORAH FROST): "With the release of their ninth album, ELIMINATOR, in 1983, these hairy, unlikely rock heroes had become a pop phenomenon. This had something to do with the discoveries of a young preproduction engineer (Linden Hudson) whose contributions, like those of many associated with the band over the years, were never acknowledged."
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FROM THE BOOK: ​SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP (By DAVID BLAYNEY) : "The integral position Linden occupied in the process of building El​iminator was demonstrated eloquently in the case of song Under Pressure. Billy and Linden, the studio wizards, did the whole song all in one afternoon without either the bass player or drummer even knowing it had been written and recorded on a demo tape. Linden synthesized the bass and drums and helped write the lyrics; Billy did the guitars and vocals."
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FROM THE BOOK: "TRES HOMBRES – THE STORY OF ZZ TOP" BY DAVID SINCLAIR (Writer for the Times Of London): "Linden Hudson, the engineer/producer who lived at Beard’s house (ZZ’s drummer) had drawn their attention to the possibilities of the new recording technology and specifically to the charms of the straight drumming pattern, as used on a programmed drum machine. On ELIMINATOR ZZ Top unveiled a simple new musical combination that cracked open a vast worldwide market.
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FROM THE BOOK: "SHARP DRESS MEN – ZZ TOP" BY DAVID BLAYNEY: "ELIMINATOR went on to become a multi-platinum album, just as Linden had predicted when he and Billy were setting up the 124-beat tempos and arranging all the material. Rolling Stone eventually picked the album as number 39 out of the top 100 of the 80’s. Linden Hudson in a fair world shoud have had his name all over ELIMINATOR and gotten the just compensation he deserved. Instead he got ostracized."
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FROM THE BOOK: ​SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP by DAVID BLAYNEY: "He (Linden) went back with the boys to 1970 when he was working as a radio disc jocky aliased Jack Smack. He was emcee for a show ZZ did around that time, and even sang an encore tune with the band, perhaps the only person ever to have that honor." (side note: this was ZZ Top’s very first show).
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FROM THE BOOK: "SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP" BY DAVID BLAYNEY: "Linden remained at Frank’s (ZZ Top drummer) place as ZZ’s live-in engineer throughout the whole period of ELIMINATOR rehearsals, and was like one of the family… as he (Linden) worked at the controls day after day, watching the album (ELIMINATOR) take shape, his hopes for a big step forward in his production career undoubtably soared. ELIMINATOR marked the first time that ZZ Top was able to rehearse an entire album with the recording studio gadgetry that Billy so loved. With Linden Hudson around all the time, it also was the first time the band could write, rehearse, and record with someone who knew the men and the machines. ZZ Top was free to go musically crazy, but also musically crazy like a fox. Linden made that possible too."
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FROM THE BOOK "ZZ TOP – BAD AND WORLDWIDE" (ROLLING STONE PRESS, BY DEBORAH FROST, WRITER FOR ROLLING STONE MAGAZINE): "… SHARP DRESSED MAN which employed Hudson’s 120 beat-per-minute theory. The feel, the enthusiasm, the snappy beat and crisp clean sound propelled ELIMINATOR into the ears and hearts of 5 million people who previously could have cared less about the boogie band of RIO GRANDE MUD."
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ULTIMATECLASSICROCK DOT COM: "This new melding of styles was encouraged by Hudson, who served as a kind of pre-producer for ​EL LOCO … … Hudson helped construct ZZ Top drummer Frank Beard’s home studio, and had lived with him for a time. That led to these initial sessions, and then a closer collaboration on 1983’s ​ELIMINATOR.
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FIREDOGLAKE DOT COM: "I like Billy Gibbons’ guitar tone quite a lot, but I lost all respect for them after reading how badly they fucked over Linden Hudson (the guy who was the brains behind their move to include synthesizers and co-wrote most of their career-defining Eliminator record)."
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EMAIL FROM A ZZ TOP FAN TO LINDEN (One Of Many): "I write you today about broken hearts, one is mine and one is for you. I have been a ZZ Top fan since I was 6 years old. I purchased ELIMINATOR vinyl from Caldors in Connecticut with the $20 my grandma gave me for my birthday. I will spare the #1 fan epic saga of tee shirts, harassing Noreen at the fan club via phone weekly for years, over 40 shows attended. Posters, non stop conversation about the time I have spent idolizing this band, but more Billy G, as he has seemed to break free of the Lone Wolf shackles and it became more clear this was his baby. In baseball I was Don Mattingly’s #1 fan, Hershel Walker in football, Billy Gibbons in music. What do these individuals have in common? They were role models. Not a DUI, not a spousal abuse, not a drug overdose, not a cheater. Until I read your web page. I read Blayney’s book around 1992 or so, I was in middle school and I was familiar with your name for a long time. I didn’t realize you suffered so greatly or that your involvement was so significant. It pains me to learn my idol not only cheated but did something so wrong to another being. I now know this is where tall tales and fun loving bullshit and poor morals and ethics are distinguished and where I would no longer consider myself to look up to Billy. I love to joke and I love credit but I have always prided myself on ethics and principles… I hold them dear. I wanted to say, the snippet of UNDER PRESSURE you played sounded very new wave and I may like it more than the finished product. Well that’s all. You have reached ZZ Top’s biggest fan and I can let others know. Bummer. Cheers and good luck. James."​

Posted by lindenhud1 on 2018-06-24 14:48:22

Tagged: , texas , moon , pond , lake , water , trees , sky , orange , sunset , beautiful , photography , colors , sundown , countryside , usa , america

THE CAUSEWAY BRIDGE TO HENZA ISLAND — As Seen from YABUCHI BRIDGE

THE CAUSEWAY BRIDGE TO HENZA ISLAND -- As Seen from YABUCHI BRIDGE

I’m standing on the YABUCHI ISLAND BRIDGE, looking due north to THE GREAT HENZA MID-OCEAN BRIDGE, just over a kilometer away.

The "string" of LED lights is 280 meters / 310 yards across.

Although this Bridge-to-Bridge image actually calls for a much higher quality camera, optics, and exposure controls, I’m amazed that my little point-and-shoot caught the jist of the scene as well as it did.

To the naked eye, the powerful LED "rainbow lights" were much sharper and more vibrant than seen here, with a much deeper range of color.

The LED illumination alternates between all white, and the rainbow. Perhaps 10 minutes each ?

Within 60 seconds of taking this photo, the entire bridge went dark. It was 11:00 pm, and the powers that be had decided that was the best time to start saving on the City’s electric bill — until tomorrow night.

I’M STANDING HERE : 26°19’17.31"N 127°54’59.58"E

BONUS PHOTO APPLICATION : It will reveal dirt and dust on your computer monitor.

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It’s late at night on CHILDREN’S DAY EVE. The illuminated Pylon and Cable-Stays of the Great Henza Mid-Ocean Bridge rise into the moon-lit sky — although the moon is behind me for this shot.

The image is only a poor rendition of what the more sensitive eye can see, but, do I mind ? No. For me, these photos are good enough visual cues to release the absolutely perfect, high resolution images stored in my brain’s photographic memory — memories that include the cool sea breeze, and the sound of the water lapping at the bridge pillar beneath me.

If you are living on Okinawa, and never made this cross-ocean drive, by all means make an effort to do so. There are four different islands out here waiting to be explored, all connected by roads and bridges, and with enough Mama-san Stores scattered throughout the villages to prevent you from starving to death

HERE’S A SIDE VIEW DURING THE DAY :

www.flickr.com/photos/okinawa-soba/8699281554/

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HENZA BRIDGE, CENTRAL RED PYLON : 26°19’54.14"N 127°54’57.99"E

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海中道路, 平安座海中大橋, 10号線, 沖縄県道10号伊計平良川線, 伊計平良川線, 沖縄県道10号伊計平良川線, 勝連半島, 平安座島, うるま市, 沖縄県, 沖縄.

"Henza Kai-chu Oohashi" 平安座海中大橋 Causeway Bridge Okinawa Okinawa-ken "Okinawa Prefecture" 海中道路 10号線 沖縄県道10号伊計平良川線 勝連半島 平安座島 うるま市 沖縄県 沖縄.

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RANDOM SOBA : www.flickriver.com/photos/24443965@N08/random/

Posted by Okinawa Soba (Rob) on 2015-05-04 18:37:48

Tagged: , Mid-Sea Road , Henza Mid-Ocean Bridge , The Great Henza Mid-Ocean Bridge , Henza Kai-chu Oohashi , 平安座海中大橋 , Kai-Chu Doro , Route 10 , Pylon , Cable-Stayed Bridge , Cable , Cables , Bridge Cables , Moon , Illumination , Bridge Illumination , Night Illumination , Night-time Illumination , Causeway , Asia’s Longest Causeway , Uruma-Shi , Uruma City , Philippine Sea , Pacific Ocean , Kin Bay , Kin-wan , Okinawa , Okinawa-ken , Japan , Henza Kai-chu Oohashi 平安座海中大橋 Causeway Bridge 海中道路 10号線 沖縄県道10号伊計平良川線 伊計平良川線 , 勝連半島 平安座島 うるま市 沖縄県 沖縄. , Causeway Bridge , Inter-Island Causeway , Henza Causeway , Henza Island Causeway , Cross-Ocean Causeway , Mid-Ocean Causeway , Okinawa Causeway , Route 10 Causeway , Rt.10 Causeway , Tidal Flats , Mid-Sea , Mid-Ocean , Cross-Sea , Cross-Ocean , Road

Don’t Fall For These 24 Myths About Facebook Ads [Free Guide] http://bit.ly/2q0EA6L

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Posted by brandready on 2017-05-18 16:55:18

Tagged: , Inbound , Marketing , WordPress , Astronomy , Telescope , Cloudscape , Glowing , Star Chart , Moon Surface , Illustration , Andromeda Galaxy , Abstract , Constellation , Dust , Orbiting , Exploding , Computer Graphic , Backgrounds , Spiral , Infinity , Imagination , Fantasy , Star Shape , Dark , Purple , Blue , Black Color , Crowded , Deep , Science , Nature , Night , Light – Natural Phenomenon , Galaxy , Star – Space , Nebula , Earth , Planet – Space , Moon , Space , Cloud – Sky , Sun , Sky , Street , Astronomy Telescope , milky , outer , Plasma , Gas , Wallpaper Pattern , Astrology , Planetary Moon