Planet Earth and Its Moon

Planet Earth and Its Moon

These are my personal notes taken during a geology presentation. I give them here because they may be of some interest. Do not expect the notes to always be in complete sentences, etc.
Planet Earth and Its Moon

Presented by: Robert Malcuit (Denison University, Granville, Ohio, USA) (

24 May 2011
The Moon has been melted down to 600 km. It has an anorthosite crust (light-colored) – ~all plagioclase feldspar-rock. It also has mare with basalts (dark-colored). The Moon is basically black and white. The astronauts who visited observed that the Moon was “black and white and gray” – no colors.

Earth’s composition indicates it is made of chondritic meteorites.

Most scientists have considered the Moon to have had little significance to the history of Earth. This is now known not to be the case.

Without the Moon, Earth’s rotation rate today would be 12 to 14 hours per day.

Earth’s actual 24 hours per day rotation rate is due to tidal friction from the presence of the Moon.

What is the origin of the Moon? Most advocate the impact model. Here, Malcuit is presenting a different view.

Earth is special – it has liquid water at the surface, it has free oxygen in the atmosphere, it has a highly developed biologic system, it has a strong magnetic field (Jupiter and the Sun have way stronger magnetic fields), it has a very large Moon (mass ratio of 1:81), it’s the only planet with true granite, it’s the only planet with continental crust, it’s the only planet with operational plate tectonics.

Moon’s mare deposits (younger) have a weaker magnetic signature than the anorthosite crustal rocks (older). This means that the lunar magnetic field died out from 3.9 to 3.6 Ga.

Earth’s continental crust mostly formed over subduction zones.

Earth plate tectonics have been operating since the beginning of the Earth, some say. Others say modern plate tectonics didn’t start until 1 billion years ago. Before that, Earth was too hot to get subduction. But, there are volcanic arcs that predate 1 billion years. However, a different plate tectonics style probably operated then.

If Earth did not have the Moon, Earth’s rotation rate would be ~12 hours/day, there would be no significant tides (only 10 to 15 centimeters from solar tides), there would be no granite and no continents, there would probably be some ocean water, and Earth would have an all-enclosing basaltic crust. Earth would probably develop bacterial life, and maybe algal life. It would have been difficult to have higher forms of life.
If the Moon was larger than it is, Earth would have 36 hours per day, resulting in extremely cold nights.
If the Moon was smaller than it is, Earth would be very different.
Earth is truly in a goldilocks zone.

Harold Urey (1893-1981), the discoverer of heavy hydrogen, said this: the Moon was a very primitive planetoid; it was a “survivor” of a class of planetoids that did not get consumed by collision with other bodies; the Moon is a major recorder of solar system events; the Moon is a captured satellite; the Moon is the “Rosetta Stone of the Solar System”.
Well, the Moon is as old as the Earth, so it is primitive. The Moon may be a little older than the Earth.

The Moon’s maria are in a straight line – the largest is first, the next largest is next, the next largest is next.
The origin of the Moon – 4 models.
1) fission models

2) co-formation models

3) capture models – a minority view; calculations demonstrating capture have only been done at Denison University in Granville, Ohio.

4) giant impact models – a popular view; there’s actually not much evidence for it; proponents can’t make a lunar-sized body from the impact debris; if they can, they can’t get the Moon to be the right composition.
Fission model – Darwin (1880) proposed the fission model. Early Earth spun so fast that the Moon pinched off and orbited Earth. See Wise (1963). Problem with the fission model – how does Earth get to be spinning so quickly for this to happen?

Co-formation model – was popular from 1930 to 1975, after the fission idea died out. Earth and the Moon formed from the same material. Calculations showed that this model didn’t provide a Moon in stable orbit. Plus, Earth & the Moon have different compositions.

Prograde capture model – calculations have been done by Malcuit and others. The Moon moved from a Sun-centered orbit to a geocentric orbit. The energy generated by the Moon capture event was 2.2 x 10 to the 28th power Joules.

Giant impact model – first seriously proposed in 1984 at a Hawaii conference. It has been favored ever since. It doesn’t relate to the geology of Earth or the Moon very well. The model has a Mars-mass body smashing into Proto-Earth. The impact event melts Proto-Earth completely. The debris coalesced into the Moon, which originally formed at 3 Earth radii distance, according to the model. It was 24 hours between the impact and the embryonic Moon. Earth initially rotated ~5 hours per day. No one has made a Moon from the debris, though.

Capture calculations have been done at Denison University since 1987.
A viable Moon origin model has to explain the following:
1) anhydrous nature of the Moon

2) Potassium index (K index) for Solar System bodies (“banana index”) – the potassium content of planetary bodies decreases in a regular way in the Solar System

3) volatile element depletion patterns for Solar System bodies – water and other volatile element contents of planetary bodies decrease in a regular way in the Solar System

4) body density differences – the Moon has a 5 grams/cubic centimeter density; the Earth has a 3.3 g/cc density

5) lunar crust & mare rock dates

6) maria origin

7) asymmetry of lunar mass distribution

8) temporal patterns of lunar rock magnetization
The discovery of Moon water was much hyped – it wasn’t quite a hoax, but it was very overstated – wishful thinking. The very thin, scattered coating of water ice on the Moon was mostly implanted by solar wind. People can’t live on the amount of water there.
The giant impact model talking points:
1) it accounts for the masses of the Moon and the Earth (actually, it doesn’t)

2) it accounts for the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system (actually, it doesn’t)

3) it accounts for the iron depletion of the Moon (yes, it does)
The tidal capture model talking points:
1) it accounts for the masses of the Moon and the Earth (yes)

2) it accounts for the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system (yes, it does) – a 10 hours/day rotating Earth that captures the Moon results in an angular momentum that we have now

3) it accounts for iron depletion of the Moon, relative to Earth (this is now explained by the capture model since 2003 understandings)
The Earth-Moon system is unique. Moon origin models require an unusual explanation. Uncommon objects, like the Moon, require an uncommon origin.

Leaning toward the capture model – it was the default explanation from 1975 to 1984.

Capture vs. collision models – a David vs. Goliath scenario.
Tens of millions of dollars have been spent on computer simulations of the giant impact model, mainly at Los Alamos. There’s lots of investment in the impact model.

Earth can’t dissipate the high amounts of energy generated by the capture event over short periods of time. The Moon can.

If capture happened, where did the Moon come from? Didn’t know, originally.
When Malcuit retired in 1999, he still didn’t have an answer.

The capture scenario turns out to be far more complex and fascinating than realized 15 years ago.

Compare the Moon capture model with plate tectonics and Milankovitch climate cyclicity. It took 60 years for plate tectonics to be accepted (1912 to 1972) – a long incubation period for the concept. It took 64 years for the Milankovitch model of Ice Ages to be accepted (1912-1976) – also a long incubation period.

The capture model is simple in principle but complex in the details.
Where did the Moon come from?
1) near Earth’s orbit. If so, would get a Moon with the same composition as Earth. (which it isn’t)

2) in the inner part of the Asteroid Belt. If so, would get a Moon with ices/water. (which it doesn’t)

3) in the inner part of the Solar System, near the Sun – a near-Sun origin for the Moon was first suggested in the 1970s.
Relevant ideas – X-Wind Model, Cool Early Earth Model, K Index for Solar System Bodies, calculations by Evans & Tabachnik (1999)

The X-Wind Model allows for an iron-poor Moon forming near the Sun. Calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are also explained by the X-Wind Model. The giant impact model can’t explain CAIs.

The most stable orbits in the Solar System have been found to occur at 0.1 to 0.2 AU (astronomical units). Orbits at this distance from the Sun are stable for up to 1 billion years. Objects that orbited the Sun at this distance (= closer than Mercury – have been called Vulcanoids. No one has seen a Vulcanoid, it’s been thought. Let’s start the Moon in a Vulcanoid orbit.

Potassium (K) depletion trends:
carbonaceous chondrite meteorites (CI, CM, CV chondrites) have high K contents.
From there, in order of decreasing K content:
Mars (
Vesta (= parent body of eucrite meteorites) (…) (
Angra (= parent body of angrite meteorites – not yet identified, but probably in the Asteroid Belt now –
The Moon is chemically associated with Vesta and Angra (eucrites & angrites).

Primitive meteorites have chondrules, calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs), and matrix. Chondrules are 1-5 mm spherical structures in primitive meteorites ( Calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) are 1-3 mm spherical structures in primitive meteorites ( They are rare, except in a meteorite that fell in 1969. The matrix is fine dust – it has element ratios very similar to the Sun.

Compositions of planets & planetoids – Mars is ~90% matrix material. Earth and Venus are a combination of chondrules and matrix + some CAI material. The Moon, Vesta, and Angra have ~90% CAI compositions.

When the Sun formed (very hot) (, it pushed water and all other volatiles out to the snowline, at 5 AU. Jupiter picked up that material and grew like mad. (

The iron line is at 0.4 AU, where Mercury orbits. ~1200° C. Get a concentration of iron at 0.4 AU – this is why Mercury is so Fe-rich (huge Fe core, compared to planet size).

~0.15 AU is where the Moon formed – inside the iron line, resulting in an Fe-depleted Moon (which it is). ~0.15 AU is a stable orbit zone.

The X-Wind Model explains CAIs – they formed at the reconnection ring shown in an X-Wind diagram and then they got swept elsewhere in the Solar System.

Cool Early Earth – proposed by John Valley et al. (2002).
4.4 billion year old zircons from the Jack Hills, Australia were discovered in 1986. The zircons indicate Earth was cool at 4.4 Ga – cool enough to have surface water. Many Earth geologic time scales start with the Hadean – Earth was supposed to have been hotter-than-hell back then. 4.4 Ga zircons indicate that wasn’t the case.

The Moon capture event occurred at 3.95 billion years ago. The older lunar maria rocks came into existence then.
Earth’s primitive crust got recycled at 3.95 Ga – this is seen in Australia, Greenland, and South Africa.
Earth was moonless for 600 million years after its formation. Lunar capture started at 3.95 Ga.

Looking at the relationship between Mercury, the Moon, and Vesta. The spacecraft Dawn will orbit Vesta soon.

SPZ – the stable planetoid zone inside Mercury’s orbit. Angra was closest to the Sun, Luna (the Moon) was a bit farther out, and Vesta was a bit farther than that – all inside the orbit of Mercury. The reconnection ring (= CAI formation locality) is inside the orbit of Angra. The area had fluctuating ~1600° K temperatures. There were other bodies in the SPZ – “No Names”.

Why did the Moon get melted to a depth of 600 km? The same thing happened to Mercury.
The Sun entered a T-Tauri stage, after the X-Wind stage. X-Wind involved generation of x-rays and more powerful radiation. The T-Tauri stage was a slow burn – microwave radiation. Luna (Moon), Vesta, and Angra were heated & baked from the outside-in by the T-Tauri event. This melted the top 600 km of the Moon. Luna then had a stronger electromagnetic field.

Luna formed at 0.15 AU and ended up as a Moon of the Earth at 1 AU by prograde gravitational capture – a “benign estrangement” scenario.

Capture models in general – captured bodies can enter a retrograde orbit or a prograde orbit – there’s a 50-50 chance for each. Happily for us, the Moon was captured in a prograde orbit – it has been getting farther away from Earth through time. If it was captured in a retrograde orbit, the Moon would be getting closer to Earth through time – that would be bad.

Vesta was born at 0.19 AU and ended up at 2.4 AU, in the Asteroid Belt. Vesta was tossed around Mercury and Venus. Vesta is too small to have been captured. Options for Vesta – collision with larger bodies or passed by larger bodies. The latter is what happened – it’s now in the Asteroid Belt.

Angra was born at 0.1 AU – it’s current location is unknown, but it is probably in the Asteroid Belt.

Adonis – a 0.5 Moon-mass body born at ~0.22 AU. Was gravitationally captured by Venus (0.7 AU) into a retrograde orbit. Adonis approached Venus through geologic time, and eventually coalesced with Venus at ~1 billion years to ~500 million years ago. This is why Venus is a basalt cauldron – a smoldering mass – This is a “fatal attraction” scenario – retrograde capture + coalescence at half a billion to a billion years ago.

Earth would have been like Venus & Adonis if the Moon was captured in retrograde orbit.

So, looking at the Moon as a vulcanoid. Vulcanoids were named in 1978. No one’s seen a vulcanoid. Well, we have been seeing a vulcanoid all this time.

The Moon has a blow-out hole (Mare Orientale –…) – material necked out by tidal disruption and fell back to the Moon’s surface to form the maria in a great circle pattern. ~18 orbits after Moon capture, there was possibly a solar perturbation that pushed the Moon closer to Earth – got maria splashes.

The X-Wind Model well explains CAIs and dehydration events. It doesn’t explain chondrules. The T-Tauri phase microwaved the Moon.

Where did chondrules form? After the dehydration event, the entire inner Solar System must have been chondrules. Chondrules formed by shock waves in the inner Solar System. The shock waves may have originated during Jupiter planetesimal coalescence events. Jupiter formed from large balls of hydrogen and helium and solid material. If two of these balls collided, would get a shock wave. With another ball collision, another shock wave was generated. Chondrules formed by melting of material by the shock waves, like a lightning strike, resulting in droplets in space. They cooled quickly into glass and later crystallized. Very rapid formation for chondrules.

The potassium index pattern developed before chondrules formed.
Earth and Venus are ~the same.
Moon, Adonis, Vesta, Angra – 4 vulcanoids.
Capture is simple in principle. Capture is complex in detail.
Earth has a large Moon – prograde capture.
Triton, a moon of Neptune, was captured for sure – it’s going the wrong way, orbit-wise.
Most of the energy generated by the Moon capture event was absorbed by the Moon.
See Professor Malcuit’s new book, published in 2015: "The Twin Sister Planets Venus and Earth, Why Are They So Different?" (
This book summarizes the contents of the above talk.

Summary of talk provided by Professor Malcuit: The origin of the Moon is still an unsolved problem in the natural sciences. In recent years many investigators have jumped onto the “bandwagon” to espouse the merits of the Giant Impact Model. This model proposes that the Moon was formed as a result of a collision of a mars-mass body with the primitive earth about 30 million years after the formation of the Earth. Although the Giant Impact Model appears to be physically possible, at least in part, the model does not relate very well to the rock records of the Earth or the Moon.

The other physically possible model is the Gravitational Capture Model. Most of the recent work, 1972 to present, has been done at Denison University as a combined geology and physics project. Our Capture Model is now undergoing a “renaissance” in light of (1) the Potassium Index for solar system bodies (~1995), (2) the discovery of a multitude of stable planetoid orbits between the orbits of planet Mercury and the Sun (~1999), and (3) the Cool Early Earth Model (~2002). In other words, the Gravitational Capture Model does relate to a number of features of the rock records of both the Earth and the Moon.

This presentation will summarize some of the scientific evidence in favor of the Gravitational Capture Model and compare and contrast this information with the main features of Giant Impact Model.

Biographical information on Professor Malcuit: Bob Malcuit received his Bachelor and Master degrees in Geology from Kent State Univeristy in 1968 and 1970 and his Ph.D in Geology from Michigan State University in 1973. Bob’s current research is in Planetary Geology and one of the themes of several of his projects is that “THE MOON IS THE ROSETTA STONE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM”. He inherited this concept from Harold Urey (American chemist) and Zdenek Kopal (Czech astronomer). In other words, Bob thinks that the Earth’s Moon is one of the most important recorders of scientific information in the Solar System (a minority view at the present time). He is also promoting the view that without a large satellite like our Moon, planet Earth would be very different from what it is today. For example, without the Moon and the associated rock and ocean tidal action, the Earth would probably not be habitable for life forms higher than bacteria and algae.

Posted by James St. John on 2015-09-12 13:05:40

Tagged: , Moon , Luna , Earth , Mercury , Venus , Mars , Astteroid , Belt , asteroids , Jupiter , origin , capture , model , collision , giant , impact , mare , basalt , anorthosite , crust , meteorite , meteorites , Angra , Adonis , Vulcanoid , Vulcanoids , Sun , orbit , orbits

Mars with polar ice caps

Mars with polar ice caps

Mars with polar ice caps visible. Dark areas are dust storms while redish is planet surace. This is my first Mars shoot and the final images are a bit blurred as I was taking these as our sun was coming up (~6:30a). Better images to come.

Posted by eric_milbrandt on 2018-03-12 10:37:32

Tagged: , ~Astrophotography , computer wallpaper , Any Vision , darkness , phenomenon , atmosphere of earth , moonlight , sky , atmosphere , Labels , A , night , C , D , moon , M , O , N , daytime , S , Mars , astronomy , outer space , space , macro photography , U , universe , planet , P , midnight , astronomical object , celestial event , ~Solar System



Photo taken by Linden Hudson’s son (Bryan) while having a father and son drive through countryside. This was taken near Columbus Texas (not far from La Grange). The moon is barely visible, but can be seen in the water too. Linden and Bryan are amateur photographers, it’s just for fun. Texas is beautiful.

Who is Linden Hudson?

CLASSICBANDS DOT COM said: “According to former roadie David Blayney in his book SHARP DRESSED MEN: sound engineer Linden Hudson co-wrote much of the material on the ZZ Top ELIMINATOR album.” (end quote)

(ZZ Top never opted to give Linden credit, which would have been THE decent thing to do. It would have helped Linden’s career as well. The band and management worked ruthlessly to take FULL credit for the hugely successful album which Linden had spent a good deal of time working on. Linden works daily to tell this story. Also, the band did not opt to pay Linden, they worked to keep all the money and they treated Linden like dirt. It was abuse. Linden launched a limited lawsuit, brought about using his limited resources which brought limited results and took years. No one should treat the co-writer of their most successful album like this. It’s just deeply fucked up.)
(see full story at Linden’s website: )
Hear the original ZZ Top ELIMINATOR writing/rehearsal tapes made by Linden Hudson and Billy Gibbons at:…
LICKLIBRARY DOT COM (2013 interview) ZZ TOP’S BILLY GIBBONS SAID: “the Eliminator sessions in 1983 were guided largely by another one of our associates, Linden Hudson, a gifted engineer, during the development of those compositions.” (end quote) (Gibbons admits this after 30 years, but offers Linden no apology or reparations for lack of credit/royalties)
MUSICRADAR DOT COM (2013 interview with ZZ Top’s guitarist Billy Gibbons broke 30 years of silence about Linden Hudson introducing synthesizers into ZZ Top’s sound.) Gibbons said: “This was a really interesting turning point. We had befriended somebody who would become an influential associate, a guy named Linden Hudson. He was a gifted songwriter and had production skills that were leading the pack at times. He brought some elements to the forefront that helped reshape what ZZ Top were doing, starting in the studio and eventually to the live stage. Linden had no fear and was eager to experiment in ways that would frighten most bands. But we followed suit, and the synthesizers started to show up on record.” (once again, there was no apology from ZZ Top or Billy Gibbons after this revelation).
TEXAS MONTHLY MAGAZINE (Dec 1996, By Joe Nick Patoski): "Linden Hudson floated the notion that the ideal dance music had 124 beats per minute; then he and Gibbons conceived, wrote, and recorded what amounted to a rough draft of an album before the band had set foot inside Ardent Studios."
FROM THE BOOK: SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP (By David Blayney) : "Probably the most dramatic development in ZZ Top recording approaches came about as Eliminator was constructed. What had gone on before evolutionary; this change was revolutionary. ZZ Top got what amounted to a new bandsman (Linden) for the album, unknown to the world at large and at first even to Dusty and Frank."
CNET DOT COM: (question posed to ZZ Top): Sound engineer Linden Hudson was described as a high-tech music teacher on your highly successful "Eliminator" album. How much did the band experiment with electronic instruments prior to that album?
THE HOUSTON CHRONICLE, MARCH 2018: "Eliminator" had a tremendous impact on us and the people who listen to us," says ZZ Top’s bass player. Common band lore points to production engineer Linden Hudson suggesting that 120 beats per minute was the perfect rock tempo, or "the people’s tempo" as it came to be known.
FROM THE BOOK: SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP by David Blayney: (page 227): "…the song LEGS Linden Hudson introduced the pumping synthesizer effect."
(Search Linden Hudson in the various ZZ Top Wikipedia pages which are related to the ELIMINATOR album and you will find bits about Linden. Also the main ZZ Top Wikipedia page mentions Linden. He’s mentioned in at least 7 ZZ Top related Wikipedia pages.)
FROM THE BOOK: SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP By David Blayney: "Linden found himself in the position of being Billy’s (Billy Gibbons, ZZ Top guitarist) closest collaborator on Eliminator. In fact, he wound up spending more time on the album than anybody except Billy. While the two of them spent day after day in the studio, they were mostly alone with the equipment and the ideas."
FROM THE BOOK: BEER DRINKERS & HELL RAISERS: A ZZ TOP GUIDE (By Neil Daniels, released 2014): "Hudson reportedly had a significant role to play during the planning stages of the release (ELIMINATOR)."
FROM THE BOOK: ZZ TOP – BAD AND WORLDWIDE (ROLLING STONE PRESS, WRITTEN BY DEBORAH FROST): "Linden was always doing computer studies. It was something that fascinated him, like studio technology. He thought he might understand the components of popular songs better if he fed certain data into his computer. It might help him understand what hits (song releases) of any given period share. He first found out about speed; all the songs he studied deviated no more than one beat from 120 beats per minute. Billy immediately started to write some songs with 120 beats per minute. Linden helped out with a couple, like UNDER PRESSURE and SHARP DRESSED MAN. Someone had to help Billy out. Dusty and Frank didn’t even like to rehearse much. Their studio absence wasn’t really a problem though. The bass and drum parts were easily played with a synthesizer or Linn drum machine." (end quote)
FROM THE BOOK: "SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP" BY DAVID BLAYNEY: "After his quantitative revelations, Linden informally but instantly became ZZ Top’s rehearsal hall theoretician, producer, and engineer." (end quote)
FROM THE BOOK: "ZZ TOP – BAD AND WORLDWIDE" (ROLLING STONE PRESS, BY DEBORAH FROST): "With the release of their ninth album, ELIMINATOR, in 1983, these hairy, unlikely rock heroes had become a pop phenomenon. This had something to do with the discoveries of a young preproduction engineer (Linden Hudson) whose contributions, like those of many associated with the band over the years, were never acknowledged."
FROM THE BOOK: ​SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP (By DAVID BLAYNEY) : "The integral position Linden occupied in the process of building El​iminator was demonstrated eloquently in the case of song Under Pressure. Billy and Linden, the studio wizards, did the whole song all in one afternoon without either the bass player or drummer even knowing it had been written and recorded on a demo tape. Linden synthesized the bass and drums and helped write the lyrics; Billy did the guitars and vocals."
FROM THE BOOK: "TRES HOMBRES – THE STORY OF ZZ TOP" BY DAVID SINCLAIR (Writer for the Times Of London): "Linden Hudson, the engineer/producer who lived at Beard’s house (ZZ’s drummer) had drawn their attention to the possibilities of the new recording technology and specifically to the charms of the straight drumming pattern, as used on a programmed drum machine. On ELIMINATOR ZZ Top unveiled a simple new musical combination that cracked open a vast worldwide market.
FROM THE BOOK: "SHARP DRESS MEN – ZZ TOP" BY DAVID BLAYNEY: "ELIMINATOR went on to become a multi-platinum album, just as Linden had predicted when he and Billy were setting up the 124-beat tempos and arranging all the material. Rolling Stone eventually picked the album as number 39 out of the top 100 of the 80’s. Linden Hudson in a fair world shoud have had his name all over ELIMINATOR and gotten the just compensation he deserved. Instead he got ostracized."
FROM THE BOOK: ​SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP by DAVID BLAYNEY: "He (Linden) went back with the boys to 1970 when he was working as a radio disc jocky aliased Jack Smack. He was emcee for a show ZZ did around that time, and even sang an encore tune with the band, perhaps the only person ever to have that honor." (side note: this was ZZ Top’s very first show).
FROM THE BOOK: "SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP" BY DAVID BLAYNEY: "Linden remained at Frank’s (ZZ Top drummer) place as ZZ’s live-in engineer throughout the whole period of ELIMINATOR rehearsals, and was like one of the family… as he (Linden) worked at the controls day after day, watching the album (ELIMINATOR) take shape, his hopes for a big step forward in his production career undoubtably soared. ELIMINATOR marked the first time that ZZ Top was able to rehearse an entire album with the recording studio gadgetry that Billy so loved. With Linden Hudson around all the time, it also was the first time the band could write, rehearse, and record with someone who knew the men and the machines. ZZ Top was free to go musically crazy, but also musically crazy like a fox. Linden made that possible too."
FROM THE BOOK "ZZ TOP – BAD AND WORLDWIDE" (ROLLING STONE PRESS, BY DEBORAH FROST, WRITER FOR ROLLING STONE MAGAZINE): "… SHARP DRESSED MAN which employed Hudson’s 120 beat-per-minute theory. The feel, the enthusiasm, the snappy beat and crisp clean sound propelled ELIMINATOR into the ears and hearts of 5 million people who previously could have cared less about the boogie band of RIO GRANDE MUD."
ULTIMATECLASSICROCK DOT COM: "This new melding of styles was encouraged by Hudson, who served as a kind of pre-producer for ​EL LOCO … … Hudson helped construct ZZ Top drummer Frank Beard’s home studio, and had lived with him for a time. That led to these initial sessions, and then a closer collaboration on 1983’s ​ELIMINATOR.
FIREDOGLAKE DOT COM: "I like Billy Gibbons’ guitar tone quite a lot, but I lost all respect for them after reading how badly they fucked over Linden Hudson (the guy who was the brains behind their move to include synthesizers and co-wrote most of their career-defining Eliminator record)."
EMAIL FROM A ZZ TOP FAN TO LINDEN (One Of Many): "I write you today about broken hearts, one is mine and one is for you. I have been a ZZ Top fan since I was 6 years old. I purchased ELIMINATOR vinyl from Caldors in Connecticut with the $20 my grandma gave me for my birthday. I will spare the #1 fan epic saga of tee shirts, harassing Noreen at the fan club via phone weekly for years, over 40 shows attended. Posters, non stop conversation about the time I have spent idolizing this band, but more Billy G, as he has seemed to break free of the Lone Wolf shackles and it became more clear this was his baby. In baseball I was Don Mattingly’s #1 fan, Hershel Walker in football, Billy Gibbons in music. What do these individuals have in common? They were role models. Not a DUI, not a spousal abuse, not a drug overdose, not a cheater. Until I read your web page. I read Blayney’s book around 1992 or so, I was in middle school and I was familiar with your name for a long time. I didn’t realize you suffered so greatly or that your involvement was so significant. It pains me to learn my idol not only cheated but did something so wrong to another being. I now know this is where tall tales and fun loving bullshit and poor morals and ethics are distinguished and where I would no longer consider myself to look up to Billy. I love to joke and I love credit but I have always prided myself on ethics and principles… I hold them dear. I wanted to say, the snippet of UNDER PRESSURE you played sounded very new wave and I may like it more than the finished product. Well that’s all. You have reached ZZ Top’s biggest fan and I can let others know. Bummer. Cheers and good luck. James."​

Posted by lindenhud1 on 2018-06-24 14:48:22

Tagged: , texas , moon , pond , lake , water , trees , sky , orange , sunset , beautiful , photography , colors , sundown , countryside , usa , america



I’m standing on the YABUCHI ISLAND BRIDGE, looking due north to THE GREAT HENZA MID-OCEAN BRIDGE, just over a kilometer away.

The "string" of LED lights is 280 meters / 310 yards across.

Although this Bridge-to-Bridge image actually calls for a much higher quality camera, optics, and exposure controls, I’m amazed that my little point-and-shoot caught the jist of the scene as well as it did.

To the naked eye, the powerful LED "rainbow lights" were much sharper and more vibrant than seen here, with a much deeper range of color.

The LED illumination alternates between all white, and the rainbow. Perhaps 10 minutes each ?

Within 60 seconds of taking this photo, the entire bridge went dark. It was 11:00 pm, and the powers that be had decided that was the best time to start saving on the City’s electric bill — until tomorrow night.

I’M STANDING HERE : 26°19’17.31"N 127°54’59.58"E

BONUS PHOTO APPLICATION : It will reveal dirt and dust on your computer monitor.


It’s late at night on CHILDREN’S DAY EVE. The illuminated Pylon and Cable-Stays of the Great Henza Mid-Ocean Bridge rise into the moon-lit sky — although the moon is behind me for this shot.

The image is only a poor rendition of what the more sensitive eye can see, but, do I mind ? No. For me, these photos are good enough visual cues to release the absolutely perfect, high resolution images stored in my brain’s photographic memory — memories that include the cool sea breeze, and the sound of the water lapping at the bridge pillar beneath me.

If you are living on Okinawa, and never made this cross-ocean drive, by all means make an effort to do so. There are four different islands out here waiting to be explored, all connected by roads and bridges, and with enough Mama-san Stores scattered throughout the villages to prevent you from starving to death



HENZA BRIDGE, CENTRAL RED PYLON : 26°19’54.14"N 127°54’57.99"E


海中道路, 平安座海中大橋, 10号線, 沖縄県道10号伊計平良川線, 伊計平良川線, 沖縄県道10号伊計平良川線, 勝連半島, 平安座島, うるま市, 沖縄県, 沖縄.

"Henza Kai-chu Oohashi" 平安座海中大橋 Causeway Bridge Okinawa Okinawa-ken "Okinawa Prefecture" 海中道路 10号線 沖縄県道10号伊計平良川線 勝連半島 平安座島 うるま市 沖縄県 沖縄.





Posted by Okinawa Soba (Rob) on 2015-05-04 18:37:48

Tagged: , Mid-Sea Road , Henza Mid-Ocean Bridge , The Great Henza Mid-Ocean Bridge , Henza Kai-chu Oohashi , 平安座海中大橋 , Kai-Chu Doro , Route 10 , Pylon , Cable-Stayed Bridge , Cable , Cables , Bridge Cables , Moon , Illumination , Bridge Illumination , Night Illumination , Night-time Illumination , Causeway , Asia’s Longest Causeway , Uruma-Shi , Uruma City , Philippine Sea , Pacific Ocean , Kin Bay , Kin-wan , Okinawa , Okinawa-ken , Japan , Henza Kai-chu Oohashi 平安座海中大橋 Causeway Bridge 海中道路 10号線 沖縄県道10号伊計平良川線 伊計平良川線 , 勝連半島 平安座島 うるま市 沖縄県 沖縄. , Causeway Bridge , Inter-Island Causeway , Henza Causeway , Henza Island Causeway , Cross-Ocean Causeway , Mid-Ocean Causeway , Okinawa Causeway , Route 10 Causeway , Rt.10 Causeway , Tidal Flats , Mid-Sea , Mid-Ocean , Cross-Sea , Cross-Ocean , Road

Don’t Fall For These 24 Myths About Facebook Ads [Free Guide]

Don’t Fall For These 24 Myths About Facebook Ads [Free Guide]

Posted by brandready on 2017-05-18 16:55:18

Tagged: , Inbound , Marketing , WordPress , Astronomy , Telescope , Cloudscape , Glowing , Star Chart , Moon Surface , Illustration , Andromeda Galaxy , Abstract , Constellation , Dust , Orbiting , Exploding , Computer Graphic , Backgrounds , Spiral , Infinity , Imagination , Fantasy , Star Shape , Dark , Purple , Blue , Black Color , Crowded , Deep , Science , Nature , Night , Light – Natural Phenomenon , Galaxy , Star – Space , Nebula , Earth , Planet – Space , Moon , Space , Cloud – Sky , Sun , Sky , Street , Astronomy Telescope , milky , outer , Plasma , Gas , Wallpaper Pattern , Astrology , Planetary Moon

Moon 30.09.2012 – 3

Moon 30.09.2012 - 3

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth’s only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter’s satellite Io, the Moon is second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known.

The average distance of the Moon from the Earth is 384,400 km, or 1.28 light-seconds.

The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth. There are several hypotheses for its origin; the most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body called Theia.

The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face, with its near side marked by dark volcanic maria that fill the spaces between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. It is the second-brightest regularly visible celestial object in Earth’s sky, after the Sun, as measured by illuminance on Earth’s surface. Its surface is actually dark, although compared to the night sky it appears very bright, with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. Its prominence in the sky and its regular cycle of phases have made the Moon an important cultural influence since ancient times on language, calendars, art, mythology, and, it is often speculated, the menstrual cycles of the female of the human species.

The Moon’s gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, and the slight lengthening of the day. The Moon’s current orbital distance is about thirty times the diameter of Earth, with its apparent size in the sky almost the same as that of the Sun, resulting in the Moon covering the Sun nearly precisely in total solar eclipse. This matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future. The Moon’s linear distance from Earth is currently increasing at a rate of 3.82 ± 0.07 centimetres per year, but this rate is not constant.

The Soviet Union’s Luna programme was the first to reach the Moon with uncrewed spacecraft in 1959; the United States’ NASA Apollo program achieved the only crewed missions to date, beginning with the first crewed lunar orbiting mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, and six crewed lunar landings between 1969 and 1972, with the first being Apollo 11. These missions returned over 380 kg of lunar rocks, which have been used to develop a geological understanding of the Moon’s origin, the formation of its internal structure, and its subsequent history. Since the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by uncrewed spacecraft.

Several mechanisms have been proposed for the Moon’s formation 4.51 billion years ago, and some 60 million years after the origin of the Solar System. These mechanisms included the fission of the Moon from Earth’s crust through centrifugal force (which would require too great an initial spin of Earth), the gravitational capture of a pre-formed Moon (which would require an unfeasibly extended atmosphere of Earth to dissipate the energy of the passing Moon), and the co-formation of Earth and the Moon together in the primordial accretion disk (which does not explain the depletion of metals in the Moon). These hypotheses also cannot account for the high angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system.

The prevailing hypothesis is that the Earth–Moon system formed as a result of the impact of a Mars-sized body (named Theia) with the proto-Earth (giant impact), that blasted material into orbit about the Earth that then accreted to form the present Earth-Moon system.

This hypothesis, although not perfect, perhaps best explains the evidence. Eighteen months prior to an October 1984 conference on lunar origins, Bill Hartmann, Roger Phillips, and Jeff Taylor challenged fellow lunar scientists: "You have eighteen months. Go back to your Apollo data, go back to your computer, do whatever you have to, but make up your mind. Don’t come to our conference unless you have something to say about the Moon’s birth." At the 1984 conference at Kona, Hawaii, the giant impact hypothesis emerged as the most popular.

Before the conference, there were partisans of the three "traditional" theories, plus a few people who were starting to take the giant impact seriously, and there was a huge apathetic middle who didn’t think the debate would ever be resolved. Afterward there were essentially only two groups: the giant impact camp and the agnostics.

Giant impacts are thought to have been common in the early Solar System. Computer simulations of a giant impact have produced results that are consistent with the mass of the lunar core and the present angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system. These simulations also show that most of the Moon derived from the impactor, rather than the proto-Earth. More recent simulations suggest a larger fraction of the Moon derived from the original Earth mass. Studies of meteorites originating from inner Solar System bodies such as Mars and Vesta show that they have very different oxygen and tungsten isotopic compositions as compared to Earth, whereas Earth and the Moon have nearly identical isotopic compositions. The isotopic equalization of the Earth-Moon system might be explained by the post-impact mixing of the vaporized material that formed the two, although this is debated.

The great amount of energy released in the impact event and the subsequent re-accretion of that material into the Earth-Moon system would have melted the outer shell of Earth, forming a magma ocean. Similarly, the newly formed Moon would also have been affected and had its own lunar magma ocean; estimates for its depth range from about 500 km to its entire depth (1,737 km).

While the giant impact hypothesis might explain many lines of evidence, there are still some unresolved questions, most of which involve the Moon’s composition
In 2001, a team at the Carnegie Institute of Washington reported the most precise measurement of the isotopic signatures of lunar rocks. To their surprise, the team found that the rocks from the Apollo program carried an isotopic signature that was identical with rocks from Earth, and were different from almost all other bodies in the Solar System. Because most of the material that went into orbit to form the Moon was thought to come from Theia, this observation was unexpected. In 2007, researchers from the California Institute of Technology announced that there was less than a 1% chance that Theia and Earth had identical isotopic signatures. Published in 2012, an analysis of titanium isotopes in Apollo lunar samples showed that the Moon has the same composition as Earth, which conflicts with what is expected if the Moon formed far from Earth’s orbit or from Theia. Variations on the giant impact hypothesis may explain this data.

The Moon is a differentiated body: it has a geochemically distinct crust, mantle, and core. The Moon has a solid iron-rich inner core with a radius of 240 km and a fluid outer core primarily made of liquid iron with a radius of roughly 300 km. Around the core is a partially molten boundary layer with a radius of about 500 km. This structure is thought to have developed through the fractional crystallization of a global magma ocean shortly after the Moon’s formation 4.5 billion years ago. Crystallization of this magma ocean would have created a mafic mantle from the precipitation and sinking of the minerals olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene; after about three-quarters of the magma ocean had crystallised, lower-density plagioclase minerals could form and float into a crust atop. The final liquids to crystallise would have been initially sandwiched between the crust and mantle, with a high abundance of incompatible and heat-producing elements. Consistent with this perspective, geochemical mapping made from orbit suggests the crust of mostly anorthosite. The Moon rock samples of the flood lavas that erupted onto the surface from partial melting in the mantle confirm the mafic mantle composition, which is more iron rich than that of Earth. The crust is on average about 50 km thick.

The Moon is the second-densest satellite in the Solar System, after Io. However, the inner core of the Moon is small, with a radius of about 350 km or less, around 20% of the radius of the Moon. Its composition is not well defined, but is probably metallic iron alloyed with a small amount of sulfur and nickel; analyses of the Moon’s time-variable rotation suggest that it is at least partly molten.

The topography of the Moon has been measured with laser altimetry and stereo image analysis. Its most visible topographic feature is the giant far-side South Pole–Aitken basin, some 2,240 km in diameter, the largest crater on the Moon and the second-largest confirmed impact crater in the Solar System. At 13 km deep, its floor is the lowest point on the surface of the Moon. The highest elevations of the Moon’s surface are located directly to the northeast, and it has been suggested might have been thickened by the oblique formation impact of the South Pole–Aitken basin. Other large impact basins, such as Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Smythii, and Orientale, also possess regionally low elevations and elevated rims. The far side of the lunar surface is on average about 1.9 km higher than that of the near side.

The discovery of fault scarp cliffs by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter suggest that the Moon has shrunk within the past billion years, by about 90 metres. Similar shrinkage features exist on Mercury.

The dark and relatively featureless lunar plains, clearly be seen with the naked eye, are called maria (Latin for "seas"; singular mare), as they were once believed to be filled with water; they are now known to be vast solidified pools of ancient basaltic lava. Although similar to terrestrial basalts, lunar basalts have more iron and no minerals altered by water. The majority of these lavas erupted or flowed into the depressions associated with impact basins. Several geologic provinces containing shield volcanoes and volcanic domes are found within the near side "maria".

Almost all maria are on the near side of the Moon, and cover 31% of the surface of the near side, compared with 2% of the far side. This is thought to be due to a concentration of heat-producing elements under the crust on the near side, seen on geochemical maps obtained by Lunar Prospector’s gamma-ray spectrometer, which would have caused the underlying mantle to heat up, partially melt, rise to the surface and erupt. Most of the Moon’s mare basalts erupted during the Imbrian period, 3.0–3.5 billion years ago, although some radiometrically dated samples are as old as 4.2 billion years. Until recently, the youngest eruptions, dated by crater counting, appeared to have been only 1.2 billion years ago. In 2006, a study of Ina, a tiny depression in Lacus Felicitatis, found jagged, relatively dust-free features that, due to the lack of erosion by infalling debris, appeared to be only 2 million years old. Moonquakes and releases of gas also indicate some continued lunar activity. In 2014 NASA announced "widespread evidence of young lunar volcanism" at 70 irregular mare patches identified by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, some less than 50 million years old. This raises the possibility of a much warmer lunar mantle than previously believed, at least on the near side where the deep crust is substantially warmer due to the greater concentration of radioactive elements. Just prior to this, evidence has been presented for 2–10 million years younger basaltic volcanism inside Lowell crater, Orientale basin, located in the transition zone between the near and far sides of the Moon. An initially hotter mantle and/or local enrichment of heat-producing elements in the mantle could be responsible for prolonged activities also on the far side in the Orientale basin.

The lighter-coloured regions of the Moon are called terrae, or more commonly highlands, because they are higher than most maria. They have been radiometrically dated to having formed 4.4 billion years ago, and may represent plagioclase cumulates of the lunar magma ocean. In contrast to Earth, no major lunar mountains are believed to have formed as a result of tectonic events.

The concentration of maria on the Near Side likely reflects the substantially thicker crust of the highlands of the Far Side, which may have formed in a slow-velocity impact of a second moon of Earth a few tens of millions of years after their formation.

The other major geologic process that has affected the Moon’s surface is impact cratering, with craters formed when asteroids and comets collide with the lunar surface. There are estimated to be roughly 300,000 craters wider than 1 km (0.6 mi) on the Moon’s near side alone. The lunar geologic timescale is based on the most prominent impact events, including Nectaris, Imbrium, and Orientale, structures characterized by multiple rings of uplifted material, between hundreds and thousands of kilometres in diameter and associated with a broad apron of ejecta deposits that form a regional stratigraphic horizon. The lack of an atmosphere, weather and recent geological processes mean that many of these craters are well-preserved. Although only a few multi-ring basins have been definitively dated, they are useful for assigning relative ages. Because impact craters accumulate at a nearly constant rate, counting the number of craters per unit area can be used to estimate the age of the surface. The radiometric ages of impact-melted rocks collected during the Apollo missions cluster between 3.8 and 4.1 billion years old: this has been used to propose a Late Heavy Bombardment of impacts.

Blanketed on top of the Moon’s crust is a highly comminuted (broken into ever smaller particles) and impact gardened surface layer called regolith, formed by impact processes. The finer regolith, the lunar soil of silicon dioxide glass, has a texture resembling snow and a scent resembling spent gunpowder. The regolith of older surfaces is generally thicker than for younger surfaces: it varies in thickness from 10–20 km in the highlands and 3–5 km in the maria. Beneath the finely comminuted regolith layer is the megaregolith, a layer of highly fractured bedrock many kilometres thick.

Comparison of high-resolution images obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has shown a contemporary crater-production rate significantly higher than previously estimated. A secondary cratering process caused by distal ejecta is thought to churn the top two centimetres of regolith a hundred times more quickly than previous models suggested – on a timescale of 81,000 years.

Lunar swirls are enigmatic features found across the Moon’s surface, which are characterized by a high albedo, appearing optically immature (i.e. the optical characteristics of a relatively young regolith), and often displaying a sinuous shape. Their curvilinear shape is often accentuated by low albedo regions that wind between the bright swirls.

Liquid water cannot persist on the lunar surface. When exposed to solar radiation, water quickly decomposes through a process known as photodissociation and is lost to space. However, since the 1960s, scientists have hypothesized that water ice may be deposited by impacting comets or possibly produced by the reaction of oxygen-rich lunar rocks, and hydrogen from solar wind, leaving traces of water which could possibly survive in cold, permanently shadowed craters at either pole on the Moon. Computer simulations suggest that up to 14,000 km2 of the surface may be in permanent shadow. The presence of usable quantities of water on the Moon is an important factor in rendering lunar habitation as a cost-effective plan; the alternative of transporting water from Earth would be prohibitively expensive.

In years since, signatures of water have been found to exist on the lunar surface. In 1994, the bistatic radar experiment located on the Clementine spacecraft, indicated the existence of small, frozen pockets of water close to the surface. However, later radar observations by Arecibo, suggest these findings may rather be rocks ejected from young impact craters. In 1998, the neutron spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector spacecraft, showed that high concentrations of hydrogen are present in the first meter of depth in the regolith near the polar regions. Volcanic lava beads, brought back to Earth aboard Apollo 15, showed small amounts of water in their interior.

The 2008 Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft has since confirmed the existence of surface water ice, using the on-board Moon Mineralogy Mapper. The spectrometer observed absorption lines common to hydroxyl, in reflected sunlight, providing evidence of large quantities of water ice, on the lunar surface. The spacecraft showed that concentrations may possibly be as high as 1,000 ppm.[92] In 2009, LCROSS sent a 2,300 kg impactor into a permanently shadowed polar crater, and detected at least 100 kg of water in a plume of ejected material. Another examination of the LCROSS data showed the amount of detected water to be closer to 155 ± 12 kg.

In May 2011, 615–1410 ppm water in melt inclusions in lunar sample 74220 was reported, the famous high-titanium "orange glass soil" of volcanic origin collected during the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. The inclusions were formed during explosive eruptions on the Moon approximately 3.7 billion years ago. This concentration is comparable with that of magma in Earth’s upper mantle. Although of considerable selenological interest, Hauri’s announcement affords little comfort to would-be lunar colonists – the sample originated many kilometers below the surface, and the inclusions are so difficult to access that it took 39 years to find them with a state-of-the-art ion microprobe instrument.

The gravitational field of the Moon has been measured through tracking the Doppler shift of radio signals emitted by orbiting spacecraft. The main lunar gravity features are mascons, large positive gravitational anomalies associated with some of the giant impact basins, partly caused by the dense mare basaltic lava flows that fill those basins. The anomalies greatly influence the orbit of spacecraft about the Moon. There are some puzzles: lava flows by themselves cannot explain all of the gravitational signature, and some mascons exist that are not linked to mare volcanism.

The Moon has an external magnetic field of about 1–100 nanoteslas, less than one-hundredth that of Earth. It does not currently have a global dipolar magnetic field and only has crustal magnetization, probably acquired early in lunar history when a dynamo was still operating. Alternatively, some of the remnant magnetization may be from transient magnetic fields generated during large impact events through the expansion of an impact-generated plasma cloud in the presence of an ambient magnetic field. This is supported by the apparent location of the largest crustal magnetizations near the antipodes of the giant impact basins.

The Moon has an atmosphere so tenuous as to be nearly vacuum, with a total mass of less than 10 metric tons (9.8 long tons; 11 short tons). The surface pressure of this small mass is around 3 × 10−15 atm (0.3 nPa); it varies with the lunar day. Its sources include outgassing and sputtering, a product of the bombardment of lunar soil by solar wind ions. Elements that have been detected include sodium and potassium, produced by sputtering (also found in the atmospheres of Mercury and Io); helium-4 and neon from the solar wind; and argon-40, radon-222, and polonium-210, outgassed after their creation by radioactive decay within the crust and mantle. The absence of such neutral species (atoms or molecules) as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and magnesium, which are present in the regolith, is not understood. Water vapour has been detected by Chandrayaan-1 and found to vary with latitude, with a maximum at ~60–70 degrees; it is possibly generated from the sublimation of water ice in the regolith. These gases either return into the regolith due to the Moon’s gravity or be lost to space, either through solar radiation pressure or, if they are ionized, by being swept away by the solar wind’s magnetic field.

A permanent asymmetric moon dust cloud exists around the Moon, created by small particles from comets. Estimates are 5 tons of comet particles strike the Moon’s surface each 24 hours. The particles strike the Moon’s surface ejecting moon dust above the Moon. The dust stays above the Moon approximately 10 minutes, taking 5 minutes to rise, and 5 minutes to fall. On average, 120 kilograms of dust are present above the Moon, rising to 100 kilometers above the surface. The dust measurements were made by LADEE’s Lunar Dust EXperiment (LDEX), between 20 and 100 kilometers above the surface, during a six-month period. LDEX detected an average of one 0.3 micrometer moon dust particle each minute. Dust particle counts peaked during the Geminid, Quadrantid, Northern Taurid, and Omicron Centaurid meteor showers, when the Earth, and Moon, pass through comet debris. The cloud is asymmetric, more dense near the boundary between the Moon’s dayside and nightside.[

The Moon’s axial tilt with respect to the ecliptic is only 1.5424°, much less than the 23.44° of Earth. Because of this, the Moon’s solar illumination varies much less with season, and topographical details play a crucial role in seasonal effects. From images taken by Clementine in 1994, it appears that four mountainous regions on the rim of Peary Crater at the Moon’s north pole may remain illuminated for the entire lunar day, creating peaks of eternal light. No such regions exist at the south pole. Similarly, there are places that remain in permanent shadow at the bottoms of many polar craters, and these dark craters are extremely cold: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter measured the lowest summer temperatures in craters at the southern pole at 35 K (−238 °C) and just 26 K (−247 °C) close to the winter solstice in north polar Hermite Crater. This is the coldest temperature in the Solar System ever measured by a spacecraft, colder even than the surface of Pluto. Average temperatures of the Moon’s surface are reported, but temperatures of different areas will vary greatly depending upon whether it is in sunlight or shadow.

The Moon makes a complete orbit around Earth with respect to the fixed stars about once every 27.3 days (its sidereal period). However, because Earth is moving in its orbit around the Sun at the same time, it takes slightly longer for the Moon to show the same phase to Earth, which is about 29.5 days[h] (its synodic period). Unlike most satellites of other planets, the Moon orbits closer to the ecliptic plane than to the planet’s equatorial plane. The Moon’s orbit is subtly perturbed by the Sun and Earth in many small, complex and interacting ways. For example, the plane of the Moon’s orbital motion gradually rotates, which affects other aspects of lunar motion. These follow-on effects are mathematically described by Cassini’s laws.

The Moon is exceptionally large relative to Earth: a quarter its diameter and 1/81 its mass. It is the largest moon in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet, though Charon is larger relative to the dwarf planet Pluto, at 1/9 Pluto’s mass. Earth and the Moon are nevertheless still considered a planet–satellite system, rather than a double planet, because their barycentre, the common centre of mass, is located 1,700 km (about a quarter of Earth’s radius) beneath Earth’s surface.


Posted by asienman on 2017-02-27 09:26:31

Tagged: , Moon , 30.09.2012 , asienman-photography

psycho bitch / moon shadow

psycho bitch / moon shadow

My Past

So I began thinking about my childhood, because I very seldom think about it now, and it’s very rare that I even talk about it. And I have to give it a lot of thought, to remember it though the perception of young eyes, because I guess I was so jaded for so long, I had narrowed my perspective to some type of tunnel vision.

And that’s the whole problem with memory, it has to divide itself up into compartments, just like on the computer. And you have little file icons in there, which you label, and maybe even color code for easy reference. But it doesn’t take long to collect way too much useless information.

But for some reason you think that this stuff is real valuable, because there are some applications in there, so like you back it up often. And every once in a while, you even go in there and reorganize, so you can revisit your data. You make new folders, and put folders in folder in folders, and sort by date.

But you know that sort is optional, because there are many ways to view it, like sort by emotion. And you also know, that is a two or three level, ascending or descending sort, before you can get it even close to what you desire. Cause mostly you just look at the bottom line, and hope it’s not in the red, with those minus figures with the parenthesis around it.

But the more comfortable you get with your machine, the better you get with the shortcuts. And after a while, you realize that you’ve backed that sucker up, just one too many times, and you can trash about three-quarters of what’s in there. And that is a brave thing to do. I mean both put it in the trash, but leave it there just in case. And then finally, because you really need the memory for something else, you empty the trash, and watch the little icon spin around.

And that’s it. It’s gone. And now you have to rely totally on backup, and just hope and pray that nothing ever happens to that. But after it gets a goodly amount of dust on it, like you haven’t touched it in years, you can go ahead and toss that too. Because I’ll clue you in, no use holding on to it, it’s disintegrated, and is totally useless by now.

Which is what it was to begin with. ~ me

Posted by lfdeale on 2009-06-07 16:57:57

Tagged: , kali , psycho , bitch , goddess , pansy , nullify , moon , shadow

Wolf Moon Rising – HTT

Wolf Moon Rising - HTT

Taken near the Rogers Limestone / Sand Quarry


By Brent Adams – Business First Staff Writer
Mar 20, 2006, 12:00am EST Updated Mar 17, 2006, 12:13pm
Nashville, Tenn.-based Rogers Group Inc. will invest $8 million in a new system to more efficiently process limestone mined from beneath the surface at its mine in eastern Jefferson County.

The company will remove an old conveyor system and install a more efficient version at Jefferson County Stone Quarry, said Rogers Group vice president Les Geralds.

The new system will have a series of rock crushers that will allow various sizes of stone to be produced in less time.

The quarry is located on Avoca Road off Old Henry Road near the Gene Snyder Freeway. Rogers Group began underground limestone mining there in 1999.

Ground was broken on the renovation last month. The work, which is being done by Process Machinery Inc. of Shelbyville, is expected to be complete by July 1.

Per-hour capacity to increase by 200 tons
The new system will allow Jefferson County Stone Quarry to process 850 tons of limestone an hour. The plant, which has a total of 50 employees, currently can process about 650 tons an hour.

The stone is used for driveways, roadways and concrete production.

Geralds declined to disclose the quarry’s annual revenue figures, but he said the quarry ships between 1.5 million and 2 million tons of stone a year at priced at $5 to $7 a ton.

"The key is getting trucks in and out quicker," Geralds said, explaining that each contractor dump truck currently is loaded with stone or gravel and sent on its way in about 10 to 12 minutes.

The new system will allow a truck to be loaded every three or four minutes, which means as many as 1,000 trucks could be loaded each day.

The system was designed by Rogers Group engineers, who have designed similar systems for other Rogers quarries.

From Stone Age to digital age
The loading system is the latest improvement in stone processing and loading at the quarry.

About five years ago, Rogers began assigning truck drivers a radio frequency identification tag. It allows them to arrive at the quarry, have their trucks automatically loaded at a stone-dispensing bin, then check out with a load, all without interacting with another person.

Geralds estimated that about 15 hauling companies regularly buy stone from the quarry, along with various independent haulers that purchase stone less frequently.

The RFID system, which has been in use at the quarry for more than four years, has sped up the paperwork and billing process involved with purchasing stone, Geralds said.

"We have seen a 30 (percent) to 40 percent time savings since implementing this system," Geralds said. "We are hoping that this new system will further cut down the time it takes to load a truck."

He added that computer-controlled machinery that dispenses the stone also is more accurate than humans, ensuring accuracy within 200 pounds. In the past, it was common for trucks, which typically carry loads of 70,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds, to be overloaded by 1,000 pounds or more.

Posted by EX22218 – ON/OFF on 2018-01-02 02:33:54

Tagged: , stone , stones , moon , wires , pole , crusher , rocks , branches , balls , red , wolf , transformers , flag , dust , plant , trees , quarry , 40245 , louisville , kentucky , lines , power , electric , environment , COPD , respiratory , light , full , asthma , 40223 , limestone , grandfathered , trucks , tarped

Telescope on the grass Under the Stars Astronomy

Telescope on the grass Under the Stars Astronomy

Telescope on the grass Under the Stars background

Astronomy (from Greek: αστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets; while the phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earth’s atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole.
Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences. The early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Indians, Egyptians, Nubians, Iranians, Chinese, and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky. Historically, astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy and the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics.
During the 20th century, the field of professional astronomy split into observational and theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, which is then analyzed using basic principles of physics. Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain the observational results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results.
Astronomy is one of the few sciences where amateurs can still play an active role, especially in the discovery and observation of transient phenomena. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, such as finding new comets.

Posted by scienceandtechnologysu on 2017-07-12 00:24:17

Tagged: , abstract , astrology , astronomy , atmosphere , background , black , blue , bright , clear , clouds , cluster , color , cosmos , deep , dusk , earth , explosion , fantasy , galaxy , graphic , idyllic , illustration , light , many , moon , nebula , night , open , orbit , outer , planet , pleiades , pure , science , shine , shiny , sky , solar , space , sparkle , star , starry , stars , grass , telescope , twinkle , universe , wallpaper , way , white , Thailand , Planets , Gases , Universal , dust , Dark , matter

Apollo Rover 2424gs

Apollo Rover 2424gs

The Lunar Roving Vehicle had a mass of 463 lbs and was designed to hold a payload of an additional 1,080 lbs on the lunar surface. The frame was 10 feet long with a wheelbase of 7.5 feet. The maximum height was 3.75 feet. The frame was made of aluminum alloy 2219 tubing welded assemblies and consisted of a 3 part chassis which was hinged in the center so it could be folded up and hung in the Lunar Module quad 1 bay. It had two side-by-side foldable seats made of tubular aluminum with nylon webbing and aluminum floor panels. An armrest was mounted between the seats, and each seat had adjustable footrests and a velcro seatbelt. A large mesh dish antenna was mounted on a mast on the front center of the rover. The suspension consisted of a double horizontal wishbone with upper and lower torsion bars and a damper unit between the chassis and upper wishbone. Fully loaded the LRV had a ground clearance of 14 inches.

The wheels consisted of a spun aluminum hub and an 32 inches diameter, 9 inch wide tire made of zinc coated woven .033 inch diameter steel strands attached to the rim and discs of formed aluminum. Titanium chevrons covered 50% of the contact area to provide traction. Inside the tire was a 25.5 inch diameter bump stop frame to protect the hub. Dust guards were mounted above the wheels. Each wheel had its own electric drive, a DC series wound 0.25 hp motor capable of 10,000 rpm, attached to the wheel via an 80:1 harmonic drive, and a mechanical brake unit. Maneuvering capability was provided through the use of front and rear steering motors. Each series wound DC steering motor was capable of 0.1 hp. Both sets of wheels would turn in opposite directions, giving a steering radius of 10 feet, or could be decoupled so only one set would be used for steering. They could also free-wheel in case of drive failure. Power was provided by two 36-volt silver-zinc potassium hydroxide non-rechargeable batteries with a capacity of 121 A·h. These were used to power the drive and steering motors and also a 36 volt utility outlet mounted on front of the LRV to power the communications relay unit or the TV camera.

A T-shaped hand controller situated between the two seats controlled the four drive motors, two steering motors and brakes. Moving the stick forward powered the LRV forward, left and right turned the vehicle left or right, pulling backwards activated the brakes. Activating a switch on the handle before pulling back would put the LRV into reverse. Pulling the handle all the way back activated a parking brake. The control and display modules were situated in front of the handle and gave information on the speed, heading, pitch, and power and temperature levels.

Navigation was based on continuously recording direction and distance through use of a directional gyro and odometer and inputting this data to a computer which would keep track of the overall direction and distance back to the LM. There was also a Sun-shadow device which could give a manual heading based on the direction of the Sun, using the fact that the Sun moved very slowly in the sky.

Posted by Quadrofonic Wingnut on 2007-04-03 04:15:01

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