Pléyades y cometa Panstarrs

Pléyades y cometa Panstarrs

60 exposiciones de 90 segundos con teleobjetivo 200 mm f/1.8, ISO 1.600, cámara Canon EOS 6D modificada. Centro, (AR): 03h 45m 39.227s,
(Dec.): +23° 48′ 16.552". Campo angular: 10.8º x 7.1º. Escala: 19.5 arcsec/pixel.

Pléyades, M45. Es un cúmulo estelar abierto que contiene estrellas calientes de tipo espectral B, ubicadas en la constelación Tauro. Está entre uno de los cúmulos estelares más cercanos a la Tierra, y es el cúmulo mejor visible a simple vista en el cielo nocturno. Las Pléyades albergan un prominente lugar en la mitología antigua, así como una diversidad de significados en diferentes culturas y tradiciones.
El cúmulo está dominado por estrellas calientes extremadamente azules y luminosas que se han formado en los últimos 100 millones de años. El polvo que forma una débil nebulosidad de reflexión alrededor de las estrellas más brillantes se pensó en un principio que provenía de una disgregación de la propia formación del cúmulo (de ahí el nombre alternativo para nebulosa Maia en vez de estrella Maia), pero ahora se sabe que es una nube de polvo no relacionada en el medio interestelar, a través de la cual las estrellas están pasando actualmente. Simulaciones por ordenador han mostrado que las Pléyades se formaron probablemente a partir de una configuración compacta que se asemeja a la nebulosa de Orión. Se estima que el grupo va a sobrevivir durante otros 250 millones de años, tiempo después del cual se dispersará debido a las interacciones gravitacionales con su vecindario galáctico.
El cúmulo tiene unos doce años luz de diámetro y contiene un total aproximado de 500 a 1.000 estrellas. Está dominado por estrellas azules jóvenes, de las cuales ocho pueden ser observadas a simple vista dependiendo de las condiciones atmosféricas (cielos muy limpios y ausencia de Luna): Taygeta (4,29), Pleione (5,05), Merope (4,14), Maia (3,87), Electra (3,72), Celaeno (5,45), Atlas (3,62) y Alcyone (2,85) (las números entre paréntesis indican las magnitudes aparentes).
El cúmulo está compuesto en una buena parte por enanas marrones —objetos con menos del 8 % de la masa solar—, los cuales son demasiado livianos para ser estrellas. Puede que estos objetos constituyan aproximadamente el 25 % de la población total del cúmulo, a pesar de que solo contribuyan al 2 % su masa total. También presentes en el cúmulo, están las enanas blancas, las cuales contradicen la edad estimada del cúmulo. Debido a la corta edad del cúmulo, no se espera que las estrellas normales puedan haber evolucionado para convertirse en enanas blancas. Se cree que, en vez de ser estrellas individuales de poca o mediana masa, los progenitores de estas estrellas eran masivas y orbitaban en sistemas binarios. Durante su rápida evolución, la transferencia de masa de la estrella más masiva a su acompañante, pudo haber acelerado su evolución hacia una enana blanca.
Las Pléyades se encuentra a unos 440 años luz.

TMC Nube Molecular de Tauro. Toda la imagen está ocupada por esta débil nebulosidad. Una nube molecular es una gran zona de gases y polvo en el espacio formada esencialmente por hidrógeno molecular y helio. Es un lugar de nacimiento de estrellas. La TMC se encuentra a unos 500 años luz y es una de las nubes moleculares más cercanas.

IC 354. Es una nebulosa en Taurus, remanente de una supernova.

IC 353. Es una amplia nebulosa de reflexión (unos 3º de longitud aparente) situada al noreste del cúmulo de las Pléyades, descubierta por E.E. Barnard en 1894.

NGC 1435, nebulosa de Mérope, nebulosa de Tempel. nebulosa de Tempel, es una nebulosa de reflexión difusa en el cúmulo abierto de las Pléyades, en la constelación de Tauro. Fue descubierta en 1859 por el astrónomo Wilhelm Tempel.
De magnitud aparente 13, NGC 1435 está enteramente iluminada por la estrella Merope (23 Tauri), que se halla totalmente rodeada por ella. NGC 1435 aparece en las fotografías de color azul por el fino polvo de carbono difundido por toda la nube. Aunque inicialmente se pensó que las Pléyades habían formado ésta y otras nebulosas circundantes, ahora se sabe que las Pléyades simplemente están atravesando la nebulosidad. Dista unos 440 años luz.

NGC 1432, nebulosa de Maya. Es una nebulosa de reflexión que rodea a la estrella Maya, perteneciente al grupo estelar de las Pléyades. NGC 1432 fue descubierto por los astrónomos franceses Paul-Pierre Henry y Prosper-Mathieu Henry en 1885.
El tamaño real de la nebulosa Maya es de unos 3,4 años luz.

IC 341. Es una nebulosidad en Taurus, se cree que remanente de una supernova.

IC 336. Es una nebulosa de emisión en la constelación de Taurus. Fue descubierta por Edward Emerson Barnard en 1893.

Cometa C/2015 ER61 PanSTARRS. Es un cometa, un objeto proveniente de la nube de Oort interior, asteroide cercano a la Tierra tipo Amor, y posiblemente una damocloide. Cuando se clasificó como planeta menor, tenía el cuarto afelio más grande de cualquier planeta menor conocido en el Sistema Solar, después de 2005 VX3, 2012 DR30 y 2013 BL76. Además, tenía la órbita más excéntrica de cualquier planeta menor conocido, con su distancia del Sol que variaba aproximadamente 99.9% durante el curso de su órbita, seguido por 2005 VX3 con una excentricidad de 0.9973. El 30 de enero de 2016, se clasificó como un cometa cuando estaba a 5,7 UA del Sol.
Aunque el núcleo del cometa fue probablemente levemente activo, las estimaciones iniciales de asteroides dieron una magnitud absoluta (H) de 12.3, lo que sugeriría un núcleo de 8-20 km de diámetro. Pero podría ser fácilmente la mitad de ese tamaño debido a la actividad que ilumina el núcleo.

60 exposures of 90 seconds with telephoto lens 200 mm f / 1.8, ISO 1600, modified Canon EOS 6D camera. Center, (AR): 03h 45m 39.227s,
(Dec.): + 23 ° 48 ‘16.552 "Angular field: 10.8 ° x 7.1 ° Scale: 19.5 arcsec / pixel.

Pleiades, M45. It is an open star cluster containing hot stars of spectral type B, located in the constellation Taurus. It is among one of the star clusters closest to the Earth, and is the cluster best visible to the naked eye in the night sky. The Pleiades harbor a prominent place in ancient mythology, as well as a diversity of meanings in different cultures and traditions.
The cluster is dominated by extremely blue and luminous hot stars that have formed in the last 100 million years. The dust that forms a faint nebulosity of reflection around the brightest stars was thought in a principle that came from a disintegration of the own formation of the cluster (hence the alternative name for Mayan nebula instead of Mayan star), but now knows that it is a cloud of unrelated dust in the interstellar medium, through which stars are currently passing. Computer simulations have shown that the Pleiades were probably formed from a compact configuration resembling the Orion Nebula. It is estimated that the group will survive for another 250 million years, after which it will disperse due to gravitational interactions with its galactic neighborhood.
The cluster is about twelve light-years in diameter and contains an approximate total of 500 to 1,000 stars. It is dominated by young blue stars, of which eight can be observed with the naked eye depending on atmospheric conditions (very clear skies and Moon absence): Taygeta (4,29), Pleione (5,05), Merope (4, 14), Maia (3.87), Electra (3.72), Celaeno (5.45), Atlas (3.62) and Alcyone (2.85) (numbers in parentheses indicate apparent magnitudes).
The cluster is largely composed of brown dwarfs – objects with less than 8% of the solar mass – which are too light to be stars. These objects may constitute approximately 25% of the total population of the cluster, although only 2% contribute their total mass. Also present in the cluster are the white dwarfs, which contradict the estimated age of the cluster. Due to the short age of the cluster, normal stars are not expected to have evolved to become white dwarfs. It is believed that, instead of being single stars of small or medium mass, the progenitors of these stars were massive and orbited in binary systems. During its rapid evolution, the transfer of mass from the most massive star to its companion, may have accelerated its evolution towards a white dwarf.
The Pleiades is about 440 light-years away.

TMC Taurus Molecular Cloud. The whole image is occupied by this weak cloudiness. A molecular cloud is a large area of gases and dust in space consisting essentially of molecular hydrogen and helium. It is a birthplace of stars. TMC is about 500 light-years away and is one of the closest molecular clouds.

IC 354. It is a nebula in Taurus, remnant of a supernova.

IC 353. It is a large reflection nebula (about 3 ° apparent length) located to the northeast of the Pleiades cluster, discovered by E.E. Barnard in 1894.

NGC 1435, Mérope nebula, Tempel nebula. Tempel nebula, is a fuzzy reflection nebula in the open cluster of the Pleiades, in the constellation Taurus. It was discovered in 1859 by the astronomer Wilhelm Tempel.
Of apparent magnitude 13, NGC 1435 is entirely illuminated by the star Merope (23 Tauri), which is completely surrounded by it. NGC 1435 appears in blue photographs because of the fine carbon dust spread throughout the cloud. Although it was initially thought that the Pleiades had formed this and other surrounding nebulae, it is now known that the Pleiades are simply passing through the cloud. It is about 440 light years away.

NGC 1432, Maya nebula. It is a nebula of reflection that surrounds to the Mayan star, pertaining to the stellar group of the Pleiades. NGC 1432 was discovered by French astronomers Paul-Pierre Henry and Prosper-Mathieu Henry in 1885.
The actual size of the Maya nebula is about 3.4 light years.

IC 341. It is a nebulosity in Taurus, believed to be remnant of a supernova.

IC 336. It is a nebula of emission in the constellation of Taurus. It was discovered by Edward Emerson Barnard in 1893.

Cometa C / 2015 ER61 PanSTARRS. It is a comet, an object coming from the inner Oort cloud, near Earth-like asteroid Love, and possibly a damocloid. When it was classified as minor planet, it had the fourth largest aphelion of any known smaller planet in the Solar System, after 2005 VX3, 2012 DR30 and 2013 BL76. In addition, it had the most eccentric orbit of any known smaller planet, with its distance from the Sun varying approximately 99.9% during the course of its orbit, followed by 2005 VX3 with an eccentricity of 0.9973. On January 30, 2016, it was classified as a comet when it was at 5.7 AU from the Sun.
Although the comet nucleus was probably slightly active, initial estimates of asteroids gave an absolute magnitude (H) of 12.3, suggesting a core 8-20 km in diameter. But it could easily be half that size due to the activity that illuminates the core.

Posted by StarryEarth on 2017-10-25 22:30:19

Tagged: , Pléyades , pleiades , Toto , Taurus , cúmulo , cluster , nebula , nebulosa , star , estrella , constellation , constelación , Barnard , Merope , Maya , Maia , Cloud , Molecular

Pléyades y cometa Panstarrs

Pléyades y cometa Panstarrs

60 exposiciones de 90 segundos con teleobjetivo 200 mm f/1.8, ISO 1.600, cámara Canon EOS 6D modificada. Centro, (AR): 03h 45m 39.227s,
(Dec.): +23° 48′ 16.552". Campo angular: 10.8º x 7.1º. Escala: 19.5 arcsec/pixel.

Pléyades, M45. Es un cúmulo estelar abierto que contiene estrellas calientes de tipo espectral B, ubicadas en la constelación Tauro. Está entre uno de los cúmulos estelares más cercanos a la Tierra, y es el cúmulo mejor visible a simple vista en el cielo nocturno. Las Pléyades albergan un prominente lugar en la mitología antigua, así como una diversidad de significados en diferentes culturas y tradiciones.
El cúmulo está dominado por estrellas calientes extremadamente azules y luminosas que se han formado en los últimos 100 millones de años. El polvo que forma una débil nebulosidad de reflexión alrededor de las estrellas más brillantes se pensó en un principio que provenía de una disgregación de la propia formación del cúmulo (de ahí el nombre alternativo para nebulosa Maia en vez de estrella Maia), pero ahora se sabe que es una nube de polvo no relacionada en el medio interestelar, a través de la cual las estrellas están pasando actualmente. Simulaciones por ordenador han mostrado que las Pléyades se formaron probablemente a partir de una configuración compacta que se asemeja a la nebulosa de Orión. Se estima que el grupo va a sobrevivir durante otros 250 millones de años, tiempo después del cual se dispersará debido a las interacciones gravitacionales con su vecindario galáctico.
El cúmulo tiene unos doce años luz de diámetro y contiene un total aproximado de 500 a 1.000 estrellas. Está dominado por estrellas azules jóvenes, de las cuales ocho pueden ser observadas a simple vista dependiendo de las condiciones atmosféricas (cielos muy limpios y ausencia de Luna): Taygeta (4,29), Pleione (5,05), Merope (4,14), Maia (3,87), Electra (3,72), Celaeno (5,45), Atlas (3,62) y Alcyone (2,85) (las números entre paréntesis indican las magnitudes aparentes).
El cúmulo está compuesto en una buena parte por enanas marrones —objetos con menos del 8 % de la masa solar—, los cuales son demasiado livianos para ser estrellas. Puede que estos objetos constituyan aproximadamente el 25 % de la población total del cúmulo, a pesar de que solo contribuyan al 2 % su masa total. También presentes en el cúmulo, están las enanas blancas, las cuales contradicen la edad estimada del cúmulo. Debido a la corta edad del cúmulo, no se espera que las estrellas normales puedan haber evolucionado para convertirse en enanas blancas. Se cree que, en vez de ser estrellas individuales de poca o mediana masa, los progenitores de estas estrellas eran masivas y orbitaban en sistemas binarios. Durante su rápida evolución, la transferencia de masa de la estrella más masiva a su acompañante, pudo haber acelerado su evolución hacia una enana blanca.
Las Pléyades se encuentra a unos 440 años luz.

TMC Nube Molecular de Tauro. Toda la imagen está ocupada por esta débil nebulosidad. Una nube molecular es una gran zona de gases y polvo en el espacio formada esencialmente por hidrógeno molecular y helio. Es un lugar de nacimiento de estrellas. La TMC se encuentra a unos 500 años luz y es una de las nubes moleculares más cercanas.

IC 354. Es una nebulosa en Taurus, remanente de una supernova.

IC 353. Es una amplia nebulosa de reflexión (unos 3º de longitud aparente) situada al noreste del cúmulo de las Pléyades, descubierta por E.E. Barnard en 1894.

NGC 1435, nebulosa de Mérope, nebulosa de Tempel. nebulosa de Tempel, es una nebulosa de reflexión difusa en el cúmulo abierto de las Pléyades, en la constelación de Tauro. Fue descubierta en 1859 por el astrónomo Wilhelm Tempel.
De magnitud aparente 13, NGC 1435 está enteramente iluminada por la estrella Merope (23 Tauri), que se halla totalmente rodeada por ella. NGC 1435 aparece en las fotografías de color azul por el fino polvo de carbono difundido por toda la nube. Aunque inicialmente se pensó que las Pléyades habían formado ésta y otras nebulosas circundantes, ahora se sabe que las Pléyades simplemente están atravesando la nebulosidad. Dista unos 440 años luz.

NGC 1432, nebulosa de Maya. Es una nebulosa de reflexión que rodea a la estrella Maya, perteneciente al grupo estelar de las Pléyades. NGC 1432 fue descubierto por los astrónomos franceses Paul-Pierre Henry y Prosper-Mathieu Henry en 1885.
El tamaño real de la nebulosa Maya es de unos 3,4 años luz.

IC 341. Es una nebulosidad en Taurus, se cree que remanente de una supernova.

IC 336. Es una nebulosa de emisión en la constelación de Taurus. Fue descubierta por Edward Emerson Barnard en 1893.

Cometa C/2015 ER61 PanSTARRS. Es un cometa, un objeto proveniente de la nube de Oort interior, asteroide cercano a la Tierra tipo Amor, y posiblemente una damocloide. Cuando se clasificó como planeta menor, tenía el cuarto afelio más grande de cualquier planeta menor conocido en el Sistema Solar, después de 2005 VX3, 2012 DR30 y 2013 BL76. Además, tenía la órbita más excéntrica de cualquier planeta menor conocido, con su distancia del Sol que variaba aproximadamente 99.9% durante el curso de su órbita, seguido por 2005 VX3 con una excentricidad de 0.9973. El 30 de enero de 2016, se clasificó como un cometa cuando estaba a 5,7 UA del Sol.
Aunque el núcleo del cometa fue probablemente levemente activo, las estimaciones iniciales de asteroides dieron una magnitud absoluta (H) de 12.3, lo que sugeriría un núcleo de 8-20 km de diámetro. Pero podría ser fácilmente la mitad de ese tamaño debido a la actividad que ilumina el núcleo.

60 exposures of 90 seconds with telephoto lens 200 mm f / 1.8, ISO 1600, modified Canon EOS 6D camera. Center, (AR): 03h 45m 39.227s,
(Dec.): + 23 ° 48 ‘16.552 "Angular field: 10.8 ° x 7.1 ° Scale: 19.5 arcsec / pixel.

Pleiades, M45. It is an open star cluster containing hot stars of spectral type B, located in the constellation Taurus. It is among one of the star clusters closest to the Earth, and is the cluster best visible to the naked eye in the night sky. The Pleiades harbor a prominent place in ancient mythology, as well as a diversity of meanings in different cultures and traditions.
The cluster is dominated by extremely blue and luminous hot stars that have formed in the last 100 million years. The dust that forms a faint nebulosity of reflection around the brightest stars was thought in a principle that came from a disintegration of the own formation of the cluster (hence the alternative name for Mayan nebula instead of Mayan star), but now knows that it is a cloud of unrelated dust in the interstellar medium, through which stars are currently passing. Computer simulations have shown that the Pleiades were probably formed from a compact configuration resembling the Orion Nebula. It is estimated that the group will survive for another 250 million years, after which it will disperse due to gravitational interactions with its galactic neighborhood.
The cluster is about twelve light-years in diameter and contains an approximate total of 500 to 1,000 stars. It is dominated by young blue stars, of which eight can be observed with the naked eye depending on atmospheric conditions (very clear skies and Moon absence): Taygeta (4,29), Pleione (5,05), Merope (4, 14), Maia (3.87), Electra (3.72), Celaeno (5.45), Atlas (3.62) and Alcyone (2.85) (numbers in parentheses indicate apparent magnitudes).
The cluster is largely composed of brown dwarfs – objects with less than 8% of the solar mass – which are too light to be stars. These objects may constitute approximately 25% of the total population of the cluster, although only 2% contribute their total mass. Also present in the cluster are the white dwarfs, which contradict the estimated age of the cluster. Due to the short age of the cluster, normal stars are not expected to have evolved to become white dwarfs. It is believed that, instead of being single stars of small or medium mass, the progenitors of these stars were massive and orbited in binary systems. During its rapid evolution, the transfer of mass from the most massive star to its companion, may have accelerated its evolution towards a white dwarf.
The Pleiades is about 440 light-years away.

TMC Taurus Molecular Cloud. The whole image is occupied by this weak cloudiness. A molecular cloud is a large area of gases and dust in space consisting essentially of molecular hydrogen and helium. It is a birthplace of stars. TMC is about 500 light-years away and is one of the closest molecular clouds.

IC 354. It is a nebula in Taurus, remnant of a supernova.

IC 353. It is a large reflection nebula (about 3 ° apparent length) located to the northeast of the Pleiades cluster, discovered by E.E. Barnard in 1894.

NGC 1435, Mérope nebula, Tempel nebula. Tempel nebula, is a fuzzy reflection nebula in the open cluster of the Pleiades, in the constellation Taurus. It was discovered in 1859 by the astronomer Wilhelm Tempel.
Of apparent magnitude 13, NGC 1435 is entirely illuminated by the star Merope (23 Tauri), which is completely surrounded by it. NGC 1435 appears in blue photographs because of the fine carbon dust spread throughout the cloud. Although it was initially thought that the Pleiades had formed this and other surrounding nebulae, it is now known that the Pleiades are simply passing through the cloud. It is about 440 light years away.

NGC 1432, Maya nebula. It is a nebula of reflection that surrounds to the Mayan star, pertaining to the stellar group of the Pleiades. NGC 1432 was discovered by French astronomers Paul-Pierre Henry and Prosper-Mathieu Henry in 1885.
The actual size of the Maya nebula is about 3.4 light years.

IC 341. It is a nebulosity in Taurus, believed to be remnant of a supernova.

IC 336. It is a nebula of emission in the constellation of Taurus. It was discovered by Edward Emerson Barnard in 1893.

Cometa C / 2015 ER61 PanSTARRS. It is a comet, an object coming from the inner Oort cloud, near Earth-like asteroid Love, and possibly a damocloid. When it was classified as minor planet, it had the fourth largest aphelion of any known smaller planet in the Solar System, after 2005 VX3, 2012 DR30 and 2013 BL76. In addition, it had the most eccentric orbit of any known smaller planet, with its distance from the Sun varying approximately 99.9% during the course of its orbit, followed by 2005 VX3 with an eccentricity of 0.9973. On January 30, 2016, it was classified as a comet when it was at 5.7 AU from the Sun.
Although the comet nucleus was probably slightly active, initial estimates of asteroids gave an absolute magnitude (H) of 12.3, suggesting a core 8-20 km in diameter. But it could easily be half that size due to the activity that illuminates the core.

Posted by StarryEarth on 2017-10-25 22:30:19

Tagged: , Pléyades , pleiades , Taurus , cúmulo , cluster , nebula , nebulosa , star , estrella , constellation , constelación , Barnard , Merope , Maya , Maia , Cloud , Molecular , Toro

The Abandonment of Lowland Maya Urban Centres

The Abandonment of Lowland Maya Urban Centres

There were more than 60 Maya “kingdoms”,which often competed for dominance and control of the lucrative commodity exchange routes,that provided essential natural resources.A new ruler could prove his status by capturing important personages from nearby centres.This provided tribute,ransom,slaves and trade oppurtunities.There was usually at least one ruler scheming to enhance his power base.The Maya were never united under a single ruler.The Maya were socially and ethically diverse.Maya rivalry was more frequent,when droughts and natural disasters contributed to food shortages.Although the Maya were not always at war,the threat of attack was a constant concern.

The abandonment of large,lowland,Maya,urban centres was not restricted to the 800-900 ADE period.Nakbe was an early Maya settlement.An expanding populace erected plazas,platforms and pyramids ca 700-400 ADE.Ca 300 BCE nearby El Mirador became more prominent.It had one of the largest concentrations of Maya monuments.and its population may have exceeded tens of thousands.Ca 200-250 ADE rainfall began to decline,forests became depleted,soil erosion was rampant,swampland began to infill and gradually dried out.The area of arable land could no longer support the growing populaceand other areas rapidly assumed El Miradors mantle of power.This was a recurrent scenario in Maya history [D Drew,1994].Hundreds of blood stained spear tips and arrow heads were recovered from the summit of the El Tigre monument at El Mirador.About 200 of these weapons were shaped from obsidian,which was sourced from the distal Mexican highlands.Graffti on the El  Tigre stone work depicts,Tialoc,the Mexican high war god.Whether Tectihuacan warriors were directly involved in this military engagement is a moot point [R Hanson,2009].The Ilapango volcano in central El Salvador erupted ca 250 ADE and caused considerable damage.It disrupted trade links and the influence of the highlands waned relative to the lowland urban centres.Within Maya domains shifts in the balance of power were not uncommon [D Drew,1999].

The prosperous era prior to ca 760 stimulated population growth.The  subsequent pressures that contributed to the abandonment of many lowland Maya communities varied locally and regionallyLacustrine sediment cores from Chichancanab on the north Yucatan peninsula [D Howell,nd] and titanium analysis of continuous 170m cores from the offshore Carico Basi[an anoxic sediment trap],Venezeula,revealed that there were 3-9 droughts during the 760,810,860 and 910 ADE eras.There was minimal rainfall to fill the  numerous,large Maya water reservoirs,fluvial flow rates diminished,and natural underground aquifers could only be accessed in the northern lowlands [L Pederson,2006]. These results compare withtitanium mineral level determinations for sediments by Lake Hugana Moar in SW China,which recorded an abnormal  dry period from ca 700-900 ADE [Mhopkins,2007].

Progressive deforestration,related soil erosion and more frequent,longer droughts reduced food production in some more densely populated centres.When a settlement was abandoned,an influx of refugees to a nearby town,could reduce its capacity to survive. Commodity exchange net works were disrupted,when a settlement was deserted,which adversely affected regional stability [D Drew,1999].The violent destruction of Tectihuacan society deprived Mesoamerica of  a major stabilizing influence and disrupted trade networks.When new exchange links were forged ,a number of Maya communities were unable to compensate for the loss of vital commercial contacts and access to natural resources.This severely restricted economic growth..As an urban centre’s power waned, its subsidiary communities became more independent and did not pay  tribute.This placed pressure on fragile economies [R Sharer,1994].

Tikal was occupied pre-700 BCE [M Ponce de Leon,2003].Ca 379 ADE a new royal lineage was established in Tikal,which appears to have had some association with Teotihuacan in central Mexico.Tectihuacan probably became involved briefly in Maya domestic affairs to gain a specific economic advantage.Other Mexican societies may also have adopted this policy.Such intrusions could have upset the balance of power in some Maya lands,[D Drew,1999].Tikal gained prominence and was defeated in battle ca 562 ADE.Its fortunes were rejuvenated ca 695 ADE,until its demise ca 889ADE.Analysisof human remains indicated that the late,unhealthy residents of Tikal were stressed,which can contribute to disease [ibid].The case history of Tikal is not unique in Maya history.

Excavations at Cancuen,downstream from rapids on the Rio Parson,provides information about the complexities of the disintegration of some Maya societies.It was a flourishing trade centre from ca 300-800 ADE.Demarest [2005] describes the massacre ca 830 ADE of elite individuals,who were disposed of with their fine,personal ornaments intact.These people were aware of the danger.Restoration construction was abandoned,while wood and stone palisades were erected to protect strategic locations in the palace complex.Cancuen is an enigma.Maya invaders usually held captives for ransom, demanded tribute from the vanquished and seized booty,[ibid].The above could infer an uprising by the masses against opulent overlords.Food shortages can incite violence.The slaughter of rhe Cancuen elite and merchant class may have provided the upstream highlanders with control over the vital trade networks.They might have provided assistance to the masses [speculation].

Copan,near the Guatemala border,was located between the highlands and lowlands at 600m ASL.Its gradual abandonment follows a different pattern from Cancuen.Proximal arable land was limited.As the populace expanded to an estimated 20,000 people ca 800ADE,houses were built on fertile land and the farmers were forced to denude the valley slopes of trees and cultivate poorer soil. Ca 738 ADE the Copan ruler was beheaded by Cauac Sky from a satellite at Quirigua.He usurped  many Copan trade links and no longer made tribute payments.These losses weakened the Copan economy.The last Copan ruler died ca 821 ADE.By ca 925 ADE  Copan had only 5000 inhabitants.The departure of a significant portion of the population eased pressure on finite resources and prolonged the existence of the community,which was abandoned ca 1200ADE [W Fash,1991].Storey advised that human remains from ca 800 ADE suffered from malnutrition and disease.

A number of lowland Maya settlements,with abundant marine resources.survived for centuries after many Maya communities had disintegrated.Lamanai is located on a lagoon on the upper New River reaches of northern Belize.Residents expanded their riverine and coastal trade networks to include a large segment of the Yukatan peninsula and remained prosperous until ca 1450 ADE [D Pendergast,nd].Many Maya refugees from the southern lowlands moved to the Yakatyan peninsula ca 850-900ADE.Putan perpetuated the progressive elements of Maya culture for another 350years,[R Sharer,1994].Their descendants still reside in Mesoamerica and parts of Mexico.

There were periods of prosperity in Maya lands,when progress was made in a relatively peaceful environment.They invented zero prior to its introduction to Eurasia,calculated the length of  the year more accurately than any country prior to the modern era, built structures that could withstand moderate seismic activity,made mortar superior to many extant products,and were good horticulturalists.

 

 

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