History of Breast Milk substitute and How they came about

History of Breast Milk substitute and How they came about

Throughout history, every generation has needed to develop an alternative to breastfeeding, either because a mother had insufficient milk or chose not to breast feed. Scientific and historical literature tells us of centuries-old efforts to satisfy an infant’s nutritional needs and to replicate the composition and benefits of breast milk.

 

In prehistoric cultures, infant mortality was high. Like other mammals, only the hardest of infant, nursed by their mothers, survived. In ancient cultures, the first doctors encouraged breast feeding. If for some reason, the mother could not nurse, wet-nursing- substituting lactating adult women for the birth mother- was recommended for those who could afford it. Ancient art shows us that those who could not afford a wet nurse relied on the milk of domestic animals, such as donkeys, camel and goats. Clay feeding vessels, designed to transfer the milk from the animal to the baby, have been found in ancient tombs and ruins. Historians of spartan times reported that succession to the throne was interrupted and given to a younger son because he was breastfed by his mother and his older brother was wet-nursed.

 

Little about infant feeding was documented between ancient times and the Renaissance. During the Middle Ages, wet nursing was the choice for a mother who could not nurse. One pediatric article on breast feeding describes the characteristics of a good wet nurse as well as information on hiccups, diarrhea and vomiting. In the late 1500s, scientists detailed the therapeutic values of human milk not only for infants, but also for aging men and women, They also recommended the use of ass’ milk as a breast- milk substitute, should a mother need it. If the baby could not be nursed, liquid food made of diluted honey mixed with cereal flour or breadcrumbs was poured through a hollow cow’s horn. However, most efforts to replace breast feeding were unsuccessful because of the infant’s intolerance or to bacterial contamination.

 

In eighteenth century Europe, unsanitary conditions were the greatest hazard for mothers or the improper preparation of breast milk alternatives was common. Documents from that time indicate that wealthy English women chose not to nurse their infants because they thought breast-feeding aged them and ruined their figures. And, even though breast feeding had been identified as a form of birth control, wealthy women preferred to bottle or hand feed, often having 12 to 20 babies instead.

 

In France, during the time of Louise the XVI and Napoleon, breast feeding- especially by the wealthy- was regarded as bourgeois and simply not done. Wet nursing, as well as animal milk and pap feeding, were the norm. French founding homes staffed by wet nurses, which carefully regulated their diets and their activities, ensured that infants received proper nutrition.

 

In the 1800s, breast feeding again became popular. For those who required an alternative, babies were fed goat or donkey milk, but this had its own drawbacks- high protein and few of the essential trace elements, plus the risk of infection from contamination. Cow’s milk- treated with additives (fat, sugar, lime water and cream) to make it more digestible and then diluted- became a common, low cost alternative. Though often used, it was not recommended because it was low protein, although thanks to the work of Louise Pasteur and Robert Koch, who discovered how to eliminate pathogenic bacteria, contamination was no longer an issue.

 

Urbanization and technological advances made breast-feeding less popular during the 20th century. The extended family became less of a support, and as women left the home and entered the workplace in record numbers, they tended to see breast feeding as an unnecessary burden. During the first half of the 20th century, scientists and physicians began in earnest to elucidate in detail the composition of mother’s milk and looking for ways of imitating it in such a way that substitutes would match more or less its digestibility and nutrient content. Success was rather slow at the beginning, however. But thanks to technological progress most manufacturers marketed bacteriologically safe and nutritionally acceptable infant foods in a powdered form already before the second world war.

 

The most significant breakthrough in artificial feeding of infants have happened in the second half of the 20th century. American, Swiss and Japanese food technologists, together with pediatricians and chemists, succeeded in matching the essential nutrients of mother’s milk in formula, making it usable from the first day of a baby’s life. Improvements in the composition of infant formula, along with better sanitary conditions and standards of living helped to decrease mortality of infants who were not breastfed from around 80% to less than 2%

 

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Best Breast Enhancement Enhances Self Confidence

Best Breast Enhancement Enhances Self Confidence

Are you looking for the best breast enhancement procedure? If your answer is affirmative, then you need to choose which product or program is suitable for you and your requirement. Some of the common reasons such as weight reduction, natural aging and the aftermath of nursing or breast feeding can result in sagging, drooping and dehydration of breast tissue. Firmer and fuller breasts work to make a woman look and feel beautiful and sexy. Since breasts work to attract males, women look for well sized and shaped breasts. Best breast enhancement procedure not only provides firmer and fuller breasts, but also reduces the chances of appearing side-effects.

Breast enlargement procedures

Breasts enlargement procedures are designed for those women who perceived to have underdeveloped breasts. They increase breast size and/or volume. Some of the common reasons responsible for underdeveloped breasts include child birth, weight fluctuation and hormonal changes. For breast enlargement procedures, a number of breast augmentation doctors are available. But they refuse to operate if the patients have normal size breasts. In fact, the desire of having fuller and firmer breasts has impelled women to explore the best breast enhancement procedures.

Fishing out best breast augmentation doctors

To find out highly educated and well qualified breast augmentation doctors, women need to make extensive search through the internet. They carry out breast augmentation procedure to enlarge the size of underdeveloped breasts with ease and at economical rates. For quick recovery, patients need to follow instructions given by healthcare providers. Doctors ask their patients to avoid activities which put pressure on the breasts. Apart from vital advantages, some disadvantages are also associated with breast enhancement procedures.

Cost of the best breast enhancement procedure

The cost of breast enlargement treatment is not covered by any insurance plans; therefore the entire cost is bear by the patients themselves. The procedure is a little bit expensive; therefore people are asked to search a reputed and established doctors. Apart from least fee, they carry out the surgery to attain best results. So, do not get late. Just make search and see results.

JustTheRightCurves.com offers fast and safe Breast Enhancement, breast implants, and best breast Augmentation through surgery at very affordable price. You can find qualified and well experience Breast Implants Before and After pictures and photos will be helpful to decide about the different types of surgery and augmentation.

Natural Breast Enhancement Methods – How Exercises Help?

Natural Breast Enhancement Methods – How Exercises Help?

Are you someone who is unhappy with the size of her breasts? Do you suffer from low self confidence because of your flat chest? Well, if your small cup size is the cause of your unhappiness and low self confidence you can opt for some breast enhancement methods.

The first thing that might come to your mind is surgeries but the truth is these surgeries are risky and expensive. Moreover the results are not guaranteed. Therefore it is always safer to opt for other means like exercises and diet for breast enlargement. Do you want to know about some of the best breast enhancement exercises and foods? Read on:

1. Exercises

• Press Ups – This is one of the best exercises. Standing two feet away from the wall put your hands on the wall. Bend your elbows and lower your body. Continue till your hands are parallel to the wall. Hold this position for 2-3 seconds.

• Push Up – For enhancement of your breast you will need to do the modified pushups. You will have to lie on the floor on your stomach. Put your hands on the floor making sure they are under the shoulder. Next you will have to bend your knees and cross the legs. Gradually start raising your torso up on to the hands and stay on your knees. Tighten the muscles of your stomach keeping your arms and back straight. Next you will have to bend your elbows until your upper arms become parallel to the floor. Then you will need to push back to the initial position. This is considered as the best exercise by many and offers great results.

• Chest Dips – Chest dips are considered one of the most effective enhancement exercises. You can use the dip machines to perform this exercise. You can also try the dumbbell fly and the standard pushups. Decline pushup is also a great option.

2. Diet

• Vegetables and Fruits – Fresh fruits and green vegetables are the best foods. They will make you healthier and therefore will give your underdeveloped breasts a healthy and toned look.

• Fennel – Fennel helps in breast enhancement as it is essentially an estrogenic herb, which is it is rich in estrogen content. You can eat it alone or you can add it to your sandwiches and salads. Fennel has been in use for a long time to increase milk production.

• Fenugreek – A synthetic form of estrogen is found in fenugreek and this makes it one of the best enhancement foods. This stimulates the growth of breasts and also helps in water retention. Increased water retention makes your breasts larger. You can use it as a spice in your food.

• Flax Seed – It has recently been discovered that flax seeds help in enhancement. Flax seeds contain phytoestrogens that stimulate the growth of breast cells. You can add the seeds to a variety of meals.

A lot of women are unhappy with the size of their breasts and therefore look for ways to enlarge them. Though breast enlargement surgeries are available they are risky and results are not guaranteed. Therefore it is better to opt for natural methods like exercises and food.

For more information about natural breast enhancement, visit www.10herbals.com now.

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The Best Time to Have Breast Augmentation Surgery

The Best Time to Have Breast Augmentation Surgery

To quote Ecclesiastes 3:1 “There is a time for everything, and a season for every activity under heaven…” Believe it or not there is a season for breast augmentation too!

Because of the extensive recovery time and the excruciating wait time to unveil the new result with the surgical procedures of the past, I believe women have created a season beginning in late January – early February through late May as The Season for breast implant surgery. It’s kind of like the push all the diet people give us after the holidays! As soon as New Years is over, the Jenny Craig’s and Weight Watchers of the world bombard us with it’s time to diet and loose those unwanted pounds before spring and summer arrive. As we get the rest of us swim suit ready, then other posibilities creep into our minds, like liposuction and breast surgery.

The traditional methods of performing breast augmentation surgery warranted this plan ahead attitude. After all, if you leave surgery with bras, bandages, bruising, drains and pain pumps; need 2 weeks off work (that will eat up a vacation in a hurry!), and look like a train wreck from neck to waist for 3 months – planning ahead is essential!

24 Hour Recovery surgical techniques have revolutionized the world of breast augmentation and breast implants. Dr. Tebbetts’ techniques allow us to routinely return 96 % of patients to full normal activity the afternoon on surgery. They leave our surgery center with none of the traditional post operative adjuncts – they can wear anything they want, shower that afternoon and wash their hair, raise their arms above their heads and resume normal every day activities. If a patient who has had a 24 Hour Recovery procedure were to wear something low cut the day of surgery – it will simply look like she has on a push up bra! The precise, dry dissection techniques employed during the operation, produce virtually no bruising – so the days of waiting to unveil the beautiful new result are over! And with the knowledge that moving and resuming normal activity immediately not only makes you feel better faster, but helps reduce the second highest reason for reoperation in breast implant surgery, capsular contracture, you have double motivation to get moving and back to normal life.

With 24 Hour breast augmentation recovery, patients should resume full normal activity immediately restricting only their cardiovascular activity and lifting for 2 -3 weeks following surgery. So when you can resume normal activity and look good immediately as well, I believe the advent of 24 Hour Recovery has made ANY time a GOOD time to have breast augmentation surgery. The “season” for breast augmentation? It’s open season all year long!

About the Author: Terrye Tebbetts is one of the most knowledgeable women in the world about breast implants, with 27 years of experience educating patients and 11 years as a patient herself. For more information about breast implants or breast augmentation Dallas surgeons, please visit www.thebestbreast.com.

A Radically Different Approach to Treating Early Breast Cancer

A Radically Different Approach to Treating Early Breast Cancer

According to the June 18th report from the online cancer journal, The Annals of Oncology, the international panel of experts that assembled for the 11th St. Gallen Health Conference in March, proposed a potentially radically different approach when it comes to deciding upon the best treatment options for early breast cancer.

While the panel still agrees that no case of breast cancer is exactly the same and each patient should received personalized care, it has put forward a new, more standardized approach when it comes to assessing disease risks and appropriate treatment strategies.

They go on to suggest that these vital clinical systems must address three distinct questions: “(i) what justifies the use of endocrine therapy, (ii) what justifies the use of anti-HER2 therapy, and (iii) what justifies the use of chemotherapy.” This is a change from the traditional method of identifying a single-risk category and then a subsequent and separate therapy recommendation.

Furthermore, the panel gave a new algorithm for clinicians to use when they are attempting to decide what will be the most effective treatment approach for their patient. As one of the members, Professor Richard Gelber of Harvard University said, “We have identified ‘thresholds for indication’ of each type of systemic treatment modality (endocrine therapy, anti-HER2 therapy, chemotherapy) based on criteria specific to each modality. We expect the refined algorithm to change clinical practice because it clarifies the indications for each treatment modality available today.”

The panel’s report emphasizes the importance of identifying which type of breast cancer a patient has and which treatment, or combination of treatments, are most likely to be successful. They recommend the increased use of genetic profiling using microarrays as a means for improved identification, especially for the forms that have been more difficult to analyze. Additionally, the panel discussed the importance of conducting extensive clinical trials because they can “provide essential information on the safety and efficacy of treatments.”

Yet, while their discussion highlights the importance of standardization from medical professionals, the panel knows who will make the final call. Professor Alan Coates of the University of Sydney expressed how the patients must be at the center of all treatment decisions saying, “We recognize the importance of quality of life, supportive care and patient preference in the treatment decision-making process.”

More specific treatment recommendations and further details can be seen in the original Annals of Oncology doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdp322

Susan Hardwicke, Ph.D. is a cognitive psychologist who has pioneered the field of neuro-nutrition. S08-1956.he has recently published an ebook on titled The Chemo Brain Report, which is available through http://www.vabion.com, http://www.healthafterchemo.com, or calling the office at (804) 308-1956.