M45- The Pleiades Cluster

M45- The Pleiades Cluster

The Pleiades, also known as M45, the Seven Sisters or Subaru (Japan), is an open star cluster containing middle-aged stars located in the constellation of Taurus. It is among the nearest star clusters to Earth and is the cluster most obvious to the naked eye in the night sky.

The cluster is dominated by hot blue and extremely luminous stars that have formed within the last 100 million years. Dust that forms a faint reflection nebulosity around the brightest stars was thought at first to be left over from the formation of the cluster is now known to be an unrelated dust cloud in the interstellar medium, through which the stars are currently passing. Computer simulations have shown that the Pleiades was probably formed from a compact configuration that resembled the Orion Nebula. Astronomers estimate that the cluster will survive for about another 250 million years, after which it will disperse due to gravitational interactions with its galactic neighborhood.

[Info from Wikipedia]

Nikon D5100
Explore Scientific ED80
Celestron AVX Mount
23 x 120 second exposures @ ISO 1600

Shot from the L&A Dark Sky Viewing Area in Erinsville, Ontario

Posted by Dark Arts Astrophotography on 2016-10-08 20:38:55

Tagged: , astrophotography , astronomy , space , Pleiades , Subaru , Cluster , m45 , Kingston , kingstonist , Ontario , Astrometrydotnet:id=nova1769464 , Astrometrydotnet:status=solved

The Mice

The Mice

This colliding pair of spiral galaxies is known as "The Mice" because of the long tails of stars and gas emanating from each galaxy. Otherwise known as NGC 4676, they will eventually merge into a single giant galaxy.

In the galaxy at left, the bright blue patch can be identified as a cascade of clusters and associations of young, hot blue stars, whose formation has been triggered by the tidal forces of the gravitational interaction. Streams of material can also be seen flowing between the two galaxies in this Hubble Space Telescope image.

The clumps of young stars in the long, straight tidal tail (upper right) are separated by fainter regions of material. These dim regions suggest that the clumps of stars have formed from the gravitational collapse of the gas and dust that once occupied those areas. Some of the clumps have luminous masses comparable to dwarf galaxies that orbit in the halo of our own Milky Way.

For more information, visit: hubblesite.org/image/1183/news_release/2002-11

For a computer simulation of The Mice colliding, visit: hubblesite.org/video/285/news_release/2002-11

Credit: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (UCSC/LO), M. Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA

Posted by NASA Hubble on 2019-04-09 20:57:37

Tagged: , NGC 4676 , Interacting galaxies , colliding galaxies , galaxy collision , galaxy , galaxies , space , astronomy , NASA , Hubble , Hubble Space Telescope , cosmos

Interacting Galaxy NGC 4485

Interacting Galaxy NGC 4485

Galaxy NGC 4485 is irregular in shape, but it hasn’t always been so. Part of NGC 4485 has been dragged toward a second galaxy, named NGC 4490 — which lies out of frame to the bottom right of this image. Between them, these two galaxies make up a galaxy pair called Arp 269. Their interactions have warped them both, turning them from spiral galaxies into irregular ones.

NGC 4485 is the smaller galaxy in this pair, which provides a real-world example for astronomers to compare to their computer models of galactic collisions. The most intense interaction between these two galaxies is all but over; they have made their closest approach and are now separating. The trail of bright stars and knotty, orange clumps that we see here extending out from NGC 4485 is all that connects them — a trail that spans some 24,000 light-years.

Astronomers believe that many of the stars in this connecting trail could never have existed without the galaxies’ close encounter. When galaxies interact, hydrogen gas is shared between them, triggering intense bursts of star formation. The orange knots of light in this image are examples of such regions, clouded with gas and dust.

A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Kathy van Pelt.

For more information, visit: www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1419a/

Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA; Acknowledgment: Kathy van Pelt

Posted by NASA Hubble on 2019-04-11 05:57:45

Tagged: , NGC 4485 , NGC 4490 , Arp 269 , Interacting galaxies , colliding galaxies , galaxy collision , galaxy , galaxies , space , astronomy , NASA , Hubble , Hubble Space Telescope , cosmos , ESA , Hidden Treasures

Still and stunning

Still and stunning

I can almost hear once again the sound of the quiet that I enjoyed while I shot this scene at the beginning of June on the Tuross River, on Australia’s southeast coast. The lack of breeze on the river rendered the water’s surface a natural mirror to reflect the light from the sky and the foreground to where I had positioned my camera. As well as numerous stars, you can see the Large Magellanic Cloud–which is a galaxy and not a cloud at all–shining off the top of the water.

At this point, the river forks off to the right into Bumbo Creek, which is broached by the wooden bridge that leads to lush and prized dairy paddocks. Beyond that bridge, you can see the fine layer of fog that hovered over the fields in the post-midnight hour.

Ruling over it all, of course, is the central band and concentrated core of our home in the heavens, the Milky Way galaxy. My attraction to viewing and photographing this section of the sky isn’t only the billions of stars concentrated there. The dark filament-like structures known as "dust lanes" that only make themselves visible by the millions of stars they obscure, also captivate me.

I created this image by shooting nine overlapping images, with my camera mounted on a panoramic head that sets a fixed angle between each photo. After capturing the individual pictures and downloading them to my computer, I used some panorama-stitching software to blend the nine images into one. To shoot each of those nine photos I used my Canon EOS 6D Mk II camera, a Samyang 14mm f/2.4 lens @ f/2.4, using an exposure time of 20 seconds @ ISO 6400.

Posted by nightscapades on 2019-07-30 12:09:57

Tagged: , Astronomy , Astrophotography , Australia , Autopano Pro , Eurobodalla , Galactic Core , Milky Way , Night , Nightscapes , Pano , Panorama , Panos , River , Sky , South Coast NSW , Stars , Stitch , Tuross , Tuross Head , Tuross River , Reflection , Large Magellanic Cloud , New South Wales

IMG_5445

IMG_5445

Elements

Everything around us contains material that was once part of a star. The cells in our bodies, the air we breathe, and materials that make up the planets in our solar system are all linked to the stars through chemical elements.

Hydrogen and helium are the two most abundant elements. They were made in the Big Bang more than 13 billion years ago. Others, like oxygen and iron, are created deep inside stars. Supernova explosions blast them into space and form even heavier elements, such as gold and uranium.

Everyday Elements

Chemical elements are the building blocks of everything. The Sun and stars, the silicon chips in our computers, and all the cells in our bodies are collections of elements.

Hydrogen is the lightest and most plentiful element. It has one proton, one electron, and an atomic number of 1. It was created in the Big Bang, along with helium. The other elements up to uranium (number 92) are made in stars.

Elements Made by People

When physicists smash smaller atoms together during experiments in nuclear accelerators and reactors, they create elements that have atomic numbers higher than 92. Neptunium, californium, and plutonium (which is used in spacecraft power supplies) are good examples of these elements. Scientists also study the tracks atomic particles make in bubble chambers during high-speed experiments (right).

Formation and Distribution

Big Bang

The nuclei of the three most basic and plentiful elements in the universe began forming during the first 100 seconds after the Big Bang.

Stars

Atomic reactions deep inside stars combine atoms to form many of the familiar elements that make up planets, stars, galaxies, and us.

Supernovae

The extremely high temperatures and pressures inside exploding stars help create the heaviest elements. Supernova explosions scatter them throughout space.

Humans

Our bodies contain more than two dozen elements. We are made of material that was created in stars.

Gases

Most elements are solids and liquids at room temperature. Eleven are gases.

Stars, People, and Atoms

Elements in Us

The human body is mostly hydrogen and oxygen, with traces of other elements (color coded to the elements table).

How Elements Reach Our Bodies

If you want to know where most elements originate, look at the night sky. Most of the stars and all the planets you see came from materials cooked up deep inside other stars. When those stars died, their elements were scattered into space in gas and dust clouds.

•A nebula is the graveyard of a star that exploded as a supernova. Material in the cloud may become new stars.

We, too, are part of the cosmic recycling process. It began billions of years ago inside an ancient star. The calcium in our bones, iron in our blood, and oxygen in our lungs were all created inside that long-dead star.

•Look at your hand. It is a piece of the universe. Its millions of skin cells are each made of elements from stars.

Elements are the building blocks of the universe. Atoms are the basic units of elements. Most atoms are made up of three types of particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every structure in the cosmos is made of atoms from many different elements.

•Each droplet of carbon is a tenth of the width of a human hair and contains thousands of atoms.

Creation of Elements in Supernova Explosions

Thanks to stars and the elements they create, the universe renews itself. When stars die, their material gets scattered through space as the seeds for new generations of stars. The heaviest elements are created in huge stellar explosions like Supernova 1987a (left). Temperatures and pressures in these outbursts are so high that atoms fuse to make more complex elements, such as lead, gold, and uranium.

The Fingerprints of Elements

Light from celestial objects identifies the chemical elements they contain. Each element has a specific fingerprint, which we can see with a spectroscope. Helium and neon are made inside stars. Helium’s spectral fingerprint is simple, while neon has many more lines. Elements like krypton and mercury are created in supernova explosions.

Posted by Autistic Reality on 2016-05-17 19:33:14

Tagged: , Ahmanson Hall of the Sky , Sky , Skies , Hall , Halls , Hall of the Sky , SoCal , California , CA , USA , US , America , Observatory , Observatories , State of California , Los Angeles , Los Angeles County , Los Feliz , Art Deco , Griffith Observatory , United States of America , United States , Landmarks , Landmark , LA , City of Los Angeles , Astronomy , Observation , Observing , Stargazing , Griffith J. Griffith , Science , Sciences , Building , Buildings , Structure , Structures , Architecture , Griffith Trust , John C. Austin , Frederick M. Ashley , Griffith Park , Park , Parks , Monument , Monuments , Russell W. Porter , Santa Monica Mountains , Mountain , Mountains , Interior , Interiors , Inside , Insides , Indoor , Indoors

IMG_5417

IMG_5417

Elements

Everything around us contains material that was once part of a star. The cells in our bodies, the air we breathe, and materials that make up the planets in our solar system are all linked to the stars through chemical elements.

Hydrogen and helium are the two most abundant elements. They were made in the Big Bang more than 13 billion years ago. Others, like oxygen and iron, are created deep inside stars. Supernova explosions blast them into space and form even heavier elements, such as gold and uranium.

Everyday Elements

Chemical elements are the building blocks of everything. The Sun and stars, the silicon chips in our computers, and all the cells in our bodies are collections of elements.

Hydrogen is the lightest and most plentiful element. It has one proton, one electron, and an atomic number of 1. It was created in the Big Bang, along with helium. The other elements up to uranium (number 92) are made in stars.

Elements Made by People

When physicists smash smaller atoms together during experiments in nuclear accelerators and reactors, they create elements that have atomic numbers higher than 92. Neptunium, californium, and plutonium (which is used in spacecraft power supplies) are good examples of these elements. Scientists also study the tracks atomic particles make in bubble chambers during high-speed experiments (right).

Formation and Distribution

Big Bang

The nuclei of the three most basic and plentiful elements in the universe began forming during the first 100 seconds after the Big Bang.

Stars

Atomic reactions deep inside stars combine atoms to form many of the familiar elements that make up planets, stars, galaxies, and us.

Supernovae

The extremely high temperatures and pressures inside exploding stars help create the heaviest elements. Supernova explosions scatter them throughout space.

Humans

Our bodies contain more than two dozen elements. We are made of material that was created in stars.

Gases

Most elements are solids and liquids at room temperature. Eleven are gases.

Stars, People, and Atoms

Elements in Us

The human body is mostly hydrogen and oxygen, with traces of other elements (color coded to the elements table).

How Elements Reach Our Bodies

If you want to know where most elements originate, look at the night sky. Most of the stars and all the planets you see came from materials cooked up deep inside other stars. When those stars died, their elements were scattered into space in gas and dust clouds.

•A nebula is the graveyard of a star that exploded as a supernova. Material in the cloud may become new stars.

We, too, are part of the cosmic recycling process. It began billions of years ago inside an ancient star. The calcium in our bones, iron in our blood, and oxygen in our lungs were all created inside that long-dead star.

•Look at your hand. It is a piece of the universe. Its millions of skin cells are each made of elements from stars.

Elements are the building blocks of the universe. Atoms are the basic units of elements. Most atoms are made up of three types of particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every structure in the cosmos is made of atoms from many different elements.

•Each droplet of carbon is a tenth of the width of a human hair and contains thousands of atoms.

Creation of Elements in Supernova Explosions

Thanks to stars and the elements they create, the universe renews itself. When stars die, their material gets scattered through space as the seeds for new generations of stars. The heaviest elements are created in huge stellar explosions like Supernova 1987a (left). Temperatures and pressures in these outbursts are so high that atoms fuse to make more complex elements, such as lead, gold, and uranium.

The Fingerprints of Elements

Light from celestial objects identifies the chemical elements they contain. Each element has a specific fingerprint, which we can see with a spectroscope. Helium and neon are made inside stars. Helium’s spectral fingerprint is simple, while neon has many more lines. Elements like krypton and mercury are created in supernova explosions.

Posted by Autistic Reality on 2016-05-17 19:32:59

Tagged: , Ahmanson Hall of the Sky , Sky , Skies , Hall , Halls , Hall of the Sky , SoCal , California , CA , USA , US , America , Observatory , Observatories , State of California , Los Angeles , Los Angeles County , Los Feliz , Art Deco , Griffith Observatory , United States of America , United States , Landmarks , Landmark , LA , City of Los Angeles , Astronomy , Observation , Observing , Stargazing , Griffith J. Griffith , Science , Sciences , Building , Buildings , Structure , Structures , Architecture , Griffith Trust , John C. Austin , Frederick M. Ashley , Griffith Park , Park , Parks , Monument , Monuments , Russell W. Porter , Santa Monica Mountains , Mountain , Mountains , Interior , Interiors , Inside , Insides , Indoor , Indoors

IMG_5428

IMG_5428

Elements

Everything around us contains material that was once part of a star. The cells in our bodies, the air we breathe, and materials that make up the planets in our solar system are all linked to the stars through chemical elements.

Hydrogen and helium are the two most abundant elements. They were made in the Big Bang more than 13 billion years ago. Others, like oxygen and iron, are created deep inside stars. Supernova explosions blast them into space and form even heavier elements, such as gold and uranium.

Everyday Elements

Chemical elements are the building blocks of everything. The Sun and stars, the silicon chips in our computers, and all the cells in our bodies are collections of elements.

Hydrogen is the lightest and most plentiful element. It has one proton, one electron, and an atomic number of 1. It was created in the Big Bang, along with helium. The other elements up to uranium (number 92) are made in stars.

Elements Made by People

When physicists smash smaller atoms together during experiments in nuclear accelerators and reactors, they create elements that have atomic numbers higher than 92. Neptunium, californium, and plutonium (which is used in spacecraft power supplies) are good examples of these elements. Scientists also study the tracks atomic particles make in bubble chambers during high-speed experiments (right).

Formation and Distribution

Big Bang

The nuclei of the three most basic and plentiful elements in the universe began forming during the first 100 seconds after the Big Bang.

Stars

Atomic reactions deep inside stars combine atoms to form many of the familiar elements that make up planets, stars, galaxies, and us.

Supernovae

The extremely high temperatures and pressures inside exploding stars help create the heaviest elements. Supernova explosions scatter them throughout space.

Humans

Our bodies contain more than two dozen elements. We are made of material that was created in stars.

Gases

Most elements are solids and liquids at room temperature. Eleven are gases.

Stars, People, and Atoms

Elements in Us

The human body is mostly hydrogen and oxygen, with traces of other elements (color coded to the elements table).

How Elements Reach Our Bodies

If you want to know where most elements originate, look at the night sky. Most of the stars and all the planets you see came from materials cooked up deep inside other stars. When those stars died, their elements were scattered into space in gas and dust clouds.

•A nebula is the graveyard of a star that exploded as a supernova. Material in the cloud may become new stars.

We, too, are part of the cosmic recycling process. It began billions of years ago inside an ancient star. The calcium in our bones, iron in our blood, and oxygen in our lungs were all created inside that long-dead star.

•Look at your hand. It is a piece of the universe. Its millions of skin cells are each made of elements from stars.

Elements are the building blocks of the universe. Atoms are the basic units of elements. Most atoms are made up of three types of particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every structure in the cosmos is made of atoms from many different elements.

•Each droplet of carbon is a tenth of the width of a human hair and contains thousands of atoms.

Creation of Elements in Supernova Explosions

Thanks to stars and the elements they create, the universe renews itself. When stars die, their material gets scattered through space as the seeds for new generations of stars. The heaviest elements are created in huge stellar explosions like Supernova 1987a (left). Temperatures and pressures in these outbursts are so high that atoms fuse to make more complex elements, such as lead, gold, and uranium.

The Fingerprints of Elements

Light from celestial objects identifies the chemical elements they contain. Each element has a specific fingerprint, which we can see with a spectroscope. Helium and neon are made inside stars. Helium’s spectral fingerprint is simple, while neon has many more lines. Elements like krypton and mercury are created in supernova explosions.

Posted by Autistic Reality on 2016-05-17 19:33:04

Tagged: , Ahmanson Hall of the Sky , Sky , Skies , Hall , Halls , Hall of the Sky , SoCal , California , CA , USA , US , America , Observatory , Observatories , State of California , Los Angeles , Los Angeles County , Los Feliz , Art Deco , Griffith Observatory , United States of America , United States , Landmarks , Landmark , LA , City of Los Angeles , Astronomy , Observation , Observing , Stargazing , Griffith J. Griffith , Science , Sciences , Building , Buildings , Structure , Structures , Architecture , Griffith Trust , John C. Austin , Frederick M. Ashley , Griffith Park , Park , Parks , Monument , Monuments , Russell W. Porter , Santa Monica Mountains , Mountain , Mountains , Interior , Interiors , Inside , Insides , Indoor , Indoors

IMG_5413

IMG_5413

Elements

Everything around us contains material that was once part of a star. The cells in our bodies, the air we breathe, and materials that make up the planets in our solar system are all linked to the stars through chemical elements.

Hydrogen and helium are the two most abundant elements. They were made in the Big Bang more than 13 billion years ago. Others, like oxygen and iron, are created deep inside stars. Supernova explosions blast them into space and form even heavier elements, such as gold and uranium.

Everyday Elements

Chemical elements are the building blocks of everything. The Sun and stars, the silicon chips in our computers, and all the cells in our bodies are collections of elements.

Hydrogen is the lightest and most plentiful element. It has one proton, one electron, and an atomic number of 1. It was created in the Big Bang, along with helium. The other elements up to uranium (number 92) are made in stars.

Elements Made by People

When physicists smash smaller atoms together during experiments in nuclear accelerators and reactors, they create elements that have atomic numbers higher than 92. Neptunium, californium, and plutonium (which is used in spacecraft power supplies) are good examples of these elements. Scientists also study the tracks atomic particles make in bubble chambers during high-speed experiments (right).

Formation and Distribution

Big Bang

The nuclei of the three most basic and plentiful elements in the universe began forming during the first 100 seconds after the Big Bang.

Stars

Atomic reactions deep inside stars combine atoms to form many of the familiar elements that make up planets, stars, galaxies, and us.

Supernovae

The extremely high temperatures and pressures inside exploding stars help create the heaviest elements. Supernova explosions scatter them throughout space.

Humans

Our bodies contain more than two dozen elements. We are made of material that was created in stars.

Gases

Most elements are solids and liquids at room temperature. Eleven are gases.

Stars, People, and Atoms

Elements in Us

The human body is mostly hydrogen and oxygen, with traces of other elements (color coded to the elements table).

How Elements Reach Our Bodies

If you want to know where most elements originate, look at the night sky. Most of the stars and all the planets you see came from materials cooked up deep inside other stars. When those stars died, their elements were scattered into space in gas and dust clouds.

•A nebula is the graveyard of a star that exploded as a supernova. Material in the cloud may become new stars.

We, too, are part of the cosmic recycling process. It began billions of years ago inside an ancient star. The calcium in our bones, iron in our blood, and oxygen in our lungs were all created inside that long-dead star.

•Look at your hand. It is a piece of the universe. Its millions of skin cells are each made of elements from stars.

Elements are the building blocks of the universe. Atoms are the basic units of elements. Most atoms are made up of three types of particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every structure in the cosmos is made of atoms from many different elements.

•Each droplet of carbon is a tenth of the width of a human hair and contains thousands of atoms.

Creation of Elements in Supernova Explosions

Thanks to stars and the elements they create, the universe renews itself. When stars die, their material gets scattered through space as the seeds for new generations of stars. The heaviest elements are created in huge stellar explosions like Supernova 1987a (left). Temperatures and pressures in these outbursts are so high that atoms fuse to make more complex elements, such as lead, gold, and uranium.

The Fingerprints of Elements

Light from celestial objects identifies the chemical elements they contain. Each element has a specific fingerprint, which we can see with a spectroscope. Helium and neon are made inside stars. Helium’s spectral fingerprint is simple, while neon has many more lines. Elements like krypton and mercury are created in supernova explosions.

Posted by Autistic Reality on 2016-05-17 19:32:57

Tagged: , Ahmanson Hall of the Sky , Sky , Skies , Hall , Halls , Hall of the Sky , SoCal , California , CA , USA , US , America , Observatory , Observatories , State of California , Los Angeles , Los Angeles County , Los Feliz , Art Deco , Griffith Observatory , United States of America , United States , Landmarks , Landmark , LA , City of Los Angeles , Astronomy , Observation , Observing , Stargazing , Griffith J. Griffith , Science , Sciences , Building , Buildings , Structure , Structures , Architecture , Griffith Trust , John C. Austin , Frederick M. Ashley , Griffith Park , Park , Parks , Monument , Monuments , Russell W. Porter , Santa Monica Mountains , Mountain , Mountains , Interior , Interiors , Inside , Insides , Indoor , Indoors

IMG_5426

IMG_5426

Elements

Everything around us contains material that was once part of a star. The cells in our bodies, the air we breathe, and materials that make up the planets in our solar system are all linked to the stars through chemical elements.

Hydrogen and helium are the two most abundant elements. They were made in the Big Bang more than 13 billion years ago. Others, like oxygen and iron, are created deep inside stars. Supernova explosions blast them into space and form even heavier elements, such as gold and uranium.

Everyday Elements

Chemical elements are the building blocks of everything. The Sun and stars, the silicon chips in our computers, and all the cells in our bodies are collections of elements.

Hydrogen is the lightest and most plentiful element. It has one proton, one electron, and an atomic number of 1. It was created in the Big Bang, along with helium. The other elements up to uranium (number 92) are made in stars.

Elements Made by People

When physicists smash smaller atoms together during experiments in nuclear accelerators and reactors, they create elements that have atomic numbers higher than 92. Neptunium, californium, and plutonium (which is used in spacecraft power supplies) are good examples of these elements. Scientists also study the tracks atomic particles make in bubble chambers during high-speed experiments (right).

Formation and Distribution

Big Bang

The nuclei of the three most basic and plentiful elements in the universe began forming during the first 100 seconds after the Big Bang.

Stars

Atomic reactions deep inside stars combine atoms to form many of the familiar elements that make up planets, stars, galaxies, and us.

Supernovae

The extremely high temperatures and pressures inside exploding stars help create the heaviest elements. Supernova explosions scatter them throughout space.

Humans

Our bodies contain more than two dozen elements. We are made of material that was created in stars.

Gases

Most elements are solids and liquids at room temperature. Eleven are gases.

Stars, People, and Atoms

Elements in Us

The human body is mostly hydrogen and oxygen, with traces of other elements (color coded to the elements table).

How Elements Reach Our Bodies

If you want to know where most elements originate, look at the night sky. Most of the stars and all the planets you see came from materials cooked up deep inside other stars. When those stars died, their elements were scattered into space in gas and dust clouds.

•A nebula is the graveyard of a star that exploded as a supernova. Material in the cloud may become new stars.

We, too, are part of the cosmic recycling process. It began billions of years ago inside an ancient star. The calcium in our bones, iron in our blood, and oxygen in our lungs were all created inside that long-dead star.

•Look at your hand. It is a piece of the universe. Its millions of skin cells are each made of elements from stars.

Elements are the building blocks of the universe. Atoms are the basic units of elements. Most atoms are made up of three types of particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every structure in the cosmos is made of atoms from many different elements.

•Each droplet of carbon is a tenth of the width of a human hair and contains thousands of atoms.

Creation of Elements in Supernova Explosions

Thanks to stars and the elements they create, the universe renews itself. When stars die, their material gets scattered through space as the seeds for new generations of stars. The heaviest elements are created in huge stellar explosions like Supernova 1987a (left). Temperatures and pressures in these outbursts are so high that atoms fuse to make more complex elements, such as lead, gold, and uranium.

The Fingerprints of Elements

Light from celestial objects identifies the chemical elements they contain. Each element has a specific fingerprint, which we can see with a spectroscope. Helium and neon are made inside stars. Helium’s spectral fingerprint is simple, while neon has many more lines. Elements like krypton and mercury are created in supernova explosions.

Posted by Autistic Reality on 2016-05-17 19:33:03

Tagged: , Ahmanson Hall of the Sky , Sky , Skies , Hall , Halls , Hall of the Sky , SoCal , California , CA , USA , US , America , Observatory , Observatories , State of California , Los Angeles , Los Angeles County , Los Feliz , Art Deco , Griffith Observatory , United States of America , United States , Landmarks , Landmark , LA , City of Los Angeles , Astronomy , Observation , Observing , Stargazing , Griffith J. Griffith , Science , Sciences , Building , Buildings , Structure , Structures , Architecture , Griffith Trust , John C. Austin , Frederick M. Ashley , Griffith Park , Park , Parks , Monument , Monuments , Russell W. Porter , Santa Monica Mountains , Mountain , Mountains , Interior , Interiors , Inside , Insides , Indoor , Indoors

IMG_5414

IMG_5414

Elements

Everything around us contains material that was once part of a star. The cells in our bodies, the air we breathe, and materials that make up the planets in our solar system are all linked to the stars through chemical elements.

Hydrogen and helium are the two most abundant elements. They were made in the Big Bang more than 13 billion years ago. Others, like oxygen and iron, are created deep inside stars. Supernova explosions blast them into space and form even heavier elements, such as gold and uranium.

Everyday Elements

Chemical elements are the building blocks of everything. The Sun and stars, the silicon chips in our computers, and all the cells in our bodies are collections of elements.

Hydrogen is the lightest and most plentiful element. It has one proton, one electron, and an atomic number of 1. It was created in the Big Bang, along with helium. The other elements up to uranium (number 92) are made in stars.

Elements Made by People

When physicists smash smaller atoms together during experiments in nuclear accelerators and reactors, they create elements that have atomic numbers higher than 92. Neptunium, californium, and plutonium (which is used in spacecraft power supplies) are good examples of these elements. Scientists also study the tracks atomic particles make in bubble chambers during high-speed experiments (right).

Formation and Distribution

Big Bang

The nuclei of the three most basic and plentiful elements in the universe began forming during the first 100 seconds after the Big Bang.

Stars

Atomic reactions deep inside stars combine atoms to form many of the familiar elements that make up planets, stars, galaxies, and us.

Supernovae

The extremely high temperatures and pressures inside exploding stars help create the heaviest elements. Supernova explosions scatter them throughout space.

Humans

Our bodies contain more than two dozen elements. We are made of material that was created in stars.

Gases

Most elements are solids and liquids at room temperature. Eleven are gases.

Stars, People, and Atoms

Elements in Us

The human body is mostly hydrogen and oxygen, with traces of other elements (color coded to the elements table).

How Elements Reach Our Bodies

If you want to know where most elements originate, look at the night sky. Most of the stars and all the planets you see came from materials cooked up deep inside other stars. When those stars died, their elements were scattered into space in gas and dust clouds.

•A nebula is the graveyard of a star that exploded as a supernova. Material in the cloud may become new stars.

We, too, are part of the cosmic recycling process. It began billions of years ago inside an ancient star. The calcium in our bones, iron in our blood, and oxygen in our lungs were all created inside that long-dead star.

•Look at your hand. It is a piece of the universe. Its millions of skin cells are each made of elements from stars.

Elements are the building blocks of the universe. Atoms are the basic units of elements. Most atoms are made up of three types of particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every structure in the cosmos is made of atoms from many different elements.

•Each droplet of carbon is a tenth of the width of a human hair and contains thousands of atoms.

Creation of Elements in Supernova Explosions

Thanks to stars and the elements they create, the universe renews itself. When stars die, their material gets scattered through space as the seeds for new generations of stars. The heaviest elements are created in huge stellar explosions like Supernova 1987a (left). Temperatures and pressures in these outbursts are so high that atoms fuse to make more complex elements, such as lead, gold, and uranium.

The Fingerprints of Elements

Light from celestial objects identifies the chemical elements they contain. Each element has a specific fingerprint, which we can see with a spectroscope. Helium and neon are made inside stars. Helium’s spectral fingerprint is simple, while neon has many more lines. Elements like krypton and mercury are created in supernova explosions.

Posted by Autistic Reality on 2016-05-17 19:32:57

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