BP OIL SPILL – NEWS CREW WITH COAST GUARD

BP OIL SPILL - NEWS CREW WITH COAST GUARD

Selfie taken by Linden Hudson, while riding on Coast Guard plane. Linden was a sound engineer with a national tv network news crew for this story. This airplane made 7 or 8 low altitude (500 feet) flyovers of the exploded BP oil rig (Deepwater Horizon) during the taking of this photo. Those Coast Guard fellows are super nice.

Who is Linden Hudson?

CLASSICBANDS DOT COM said: “According to former roadie David Blayney in his book SHARP DRESSED MEN: sound engineer Linden Hudson co-wrote much of the material on the ZZ Top ELIMINATOR album.” (end quote)

(ZZ Top never opted to give Linden credit, which would have been THE decent thing to do. It would have helped Linden’s career as well. The band and management worked ruthlessly to take FULL credit for the hugely successful album which Linden had spent a good deal of time working on. Linden works daily to tell this story. Also, the band did not opt to pay Linden, they worked to keep all the money and they treated Linden like dirt. It was abuse. Linden launched a limited lawsuit, brought about using his limited resources which brought limited results and took years. No one should treat the co-writer of their most successful album like this. It’s just deeply fucked up.)
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(see full story at Linden’s website: www.linden-hudson.com/birth-of-the-zz-top-eliminator-album )
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Hear the original ZZ Top ELIMINATOR writing/rehearsal tapes made by Linden Hudson and Billy Gibbons at: www.flickr.com/photos/152350852@N02/35711891332/in/photol…
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LICKLIBRARY DOT COM (2013 Billy Gibbons interview) ZZ TOP’S BILLY GIBBONS FINALLY ADMITTED: “the Eliminator sessions in 1983 were guided largely by another one of our associates, Linden Hudson, a gifted engineer, during the development of those compositions.” (end quote) (Gibbons admits this after 30 years, but offers Linden no apology or reparations for lack of credit/royalties)
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MUSICRADAR DOT COM (2013 interview with ZZ Top’s guitarist Billy Gibbons broke 30 years of silence about Linden Hudson introducing synthesizers into ZZ Top’s sound.) Gibbons said: “This was a really interesting turning point. We had befriended somebody who would become an influential associate, a guy named Linden Hudson. He was a gifted songwriter and had production skills that were leading the pack at times. He brought some elements to the forefront that helped reshape what ZZ Top were doing, starting in the studio and eventually to the live stage. Linden had no fear and was eager to experiment in ways that would frighten most bands. But we followed suit, and the synthesizers started to show up on record.” (once again, there was no apology from ZZ Top or Billy Gibbons after this revelation).
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TEXAS MONTHLY MAGAZINE (Dec 1996, By Joe Nick Patoski): "Linden Hudson floated the notion that the ideal dance music had 124 beats per minute; then he and Gibbons conceived, wrote, and recorded what amounted to a rough draft of an album before the band had set foot inside Ardent Studios."
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FROM THE BOOK: SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP (By David Blayney) : "Probably the most dramatic development in ZZ Top recording approaches came about as Eliminator was constructed. What had gone on before evolutionary; this change was revolutionary. ZZ Top got what amounted to a new bandsman (Linden) for the album, unknown to the world at large and at first even to Dusty and Frank."
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CNET DOT COM: (question posed to ZZ Top): Sound engineer Linden Hudson was described as a high-tech music teacher on your highly successful "Eliminator" album. How much did the band experiment with electronic instruments prior to that album?
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THE HOUSTON CHRONICLE, MARCH 2018: "Eliminator" had a tremendous impact on us and the people who listen to us," says ZZ Top’s bass player. Common band lore points to production engineer Linden Hudson suggesting that 120 beats per minute was the perfect rock tempo, or "the people’s tempo" as it came to be known.
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FROM THE BOOK: SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP by David Blayney: (page 227): "…the song LEGS Linden Hudson introduced the pumping synthesizer effect."
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(Search Linden Hudson in the various ZZ Top Wikipedia pages which are related to the ELIMINATOR album and you will find bits about Linden. Also the main ZZ Top Wikipedia page mentions Linden. He’s mentioned in at least 7 ZZ Top related Wikipedia pages.)
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FROM THE BOOK: SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP By David Blayney: "Linden found himself in the position of being Billy’s (Billy Gibbons, ZZ Top guitarist) closest collaborator on Eliminator. In fact, he wound up spending more time on the album than anybody except Billy. While the two of them spent day after day in the studio, they were mostly alone with the equipment and the ideas."
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FROM THE BOOK: BEER DRINKERS & HELL RAISERS: A ZZ TOP GUIDE (By Neil Daniels, released 2014): "Hudson reportedly had a significant role to play during the planning stages of the release (ELIMINATOR)."
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FROM THE BOOK: ZZ TOP – BAD AND WORLDWIDE (ROLLING STONE PRESS, WRITTEN BY DEBORAH FROST): "Linden was always doing computer studies. It was something that fascinated him, like studio technology. He thought he might understand the components of popular songs better if he fed certain data into his computer. It might help him understand what hits (song releases) of any given period share. He first found out about speed; all the songs he studied deviated no more than one beat from 120 beats per minute. Billy immediately started to write some songs with 120 beats per minute. Linden helped out with a couple, like UNDER PRESSURE and SHARP DRESSED MAN. Someone had to help Billy out. Dusty and Frank didn’t even like to rehearse much. Their studio absence wasn’t really a problem though. The bass and drum parts were easily played with a synthesizer or Linn drum machine." (end quote)
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FROM THE BOOK: "SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP" BY DAVID BLAYNEY: "After his quantitative revelations, Linden informally but instantly became ZZ Top’s rehearsal hall theoretician, producer, and engineer." (end quote)
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FROM THE BOOK: "ZZ TOP – BAD AND WORLDWIDE" (ROLLING STONE PRESS, BY DEBORAH FROST): "With the release of their ninth album, ELIMINATOR, in 1983, these hairy, unlikely rock heroes had become a pop phenomenon. This had something to do with the discoveries of a young preproduction engineer (Linden Hudson) whose contributions, like those of many associated with the band over the years, were never acknowledged."
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FROM THE BOOK: ​SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP (By DAVID BLAYNEY) : "The integral position Linden occupied in the process of building El​iminator was demonstrated eloquently in the case of song Under Pressure. Billy and Linden, the studio wizards, did the whole song all in one afternoon without either the bass player or drummer even knowing it had been written and recorded on a demo tape. Linden synthesized the bass and drums and helped write the lyrics; Billy did the guitars and vocals."
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FROM THE BOOK: "TRES HOMBRES – THE STORY OF ZZ TOP" BY DAVID SINCLAIR (Writer for the Times Of London): "Linden Hudson, the engineer/producer who lived at Beard’s house (ZZ’s drummer) had drawn their attention to the possibilities of the new recording technology and specifically to the charms of the straight drumming pattern, as used on a programmed drum machine. On ELIMINATOR ZZ Top unveiled a simple new musical combination that cracked open a vast worldwide market.
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FROM THE BOOK: "SHARP DRESS MEN – ZZ TOP" BY DAVID BLAYNEY: "ELIMINATOR went on to become a multi-platinum album, just as Linden had predicted when he and Billy were setting up the 124-beat tempos and arranging all the material. Rolling Stone eventually picked the album as number 39 out of the top 100 of the 80’s. Linden Hudson in a fair world shoud have had his name all over ELIMINATOR and gotten the just compensation he deserved. Instead he got ostracized."
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FROM THE BOOK: ​SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP by DAVID BLAYNEY: "He (Linden) went back with the boys to 1970 when he was working as a radio disc jocky aliased Jack Smack. He was emcee for a show ZZ did around that time, and even sang an encore tune with the band, perhaps the only person ever to have that honor." (side note: this was ZZ Top’s very first show).
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FROM THE BOOK: "SHARP DRESSED MEN – ZZ TOP" BY DAVID BLAYNEY: "Linden remained at Frank’s (ZZ Top drummer) place as ZZ’s live-in engineer throughout the whole period of ELIMINATOR rehearsals, and was like one of the family… as he (Linden) worked at the controls day after day, watching the album (ELIMINATOR) take shape, his hopes for a big step forward in his production career undoubtably soared. ELIMINATOR marked the first time that ZZ Top was able to rehearse an entire album with the recording studio gadgetry that Billy so loved. With Linden Hudson around all the time, it also was the first time the band could write, rehearse, and record with someone who knew the men and the machines. ZZ Top was free to go musically crazy, but also musically crazy like a fox. Linden made that possible too."
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FROM THE BOOK "ZZ TOP – BAD AND WORLDWIDE" (ROLLING STONE PRESS, BY DEBORAH FROST, WRITER FOR ROLLING STONE MAGAZINE): "… SHARP DRESSED MAN which employed Hudson’s 120 beat-per-minute theory. The feel, the enthusiasm, the snappy beat and crisp clean sound propelled ELIMINATOR into the ears and hearts of 5 million people who previously could have cared less about the boogie band of RIO GRANDE MUD."
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THE GREATEST ROCK REBRAND OF ALL TIME (by Jason Miller): "Sound engineer Linden Hudson researched the tempos at which the most popular rock tracks in the charts had been recorded. His data showed that there was something very special about 120 beats to a minute. Gibbons decided to record pretty much the whole of ZZ Top’s new album at that tempo. The result? 1983’s Eliminator. It was named after Gibbons’ Ford Coupé; it had been created through a unique combination of creative collaboration and data mining. And it was about to take the world by storm."
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ULTIMATECLASSICROCK DOT COM: "This new melding of styles was encouraged by Hudson, who served as a kind of pre-producer for ​EL LOCO … … Hudson helped construct ZZ Top drummer Frank Beard’s home studio, and had lived with him for a time. That led to these initial sessions, and then a closer collaboration on 1983’s ​ELIMINATOR.
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FIREDOGLAKE DOT COM: "I like Billy Gibbons’ guitar tone quite a lot, but I lost all respect for them after reading how badly they fucked over Linden Hudson (the guy who was the brains behind their move to include synthesizers and co-wrote most of their career-defining Eliminator record)."
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EMAIL FROM A ZZ TOP FAN TO LINDEN (One Of Many): "I write you today about broken hearts, one is mine and one is for you. I have been a ZZ Top fan since I was 6 years old. I purchased ELIMINATOR vinyl from Caldors in Connecticut with the $20 my grandma gave me for my birthday. I will spare the #1 fan epic saga of tee shirts, harassing Noreen at the fan club via phone weekly for years, over 40 shows attended. Posters, non stop conversation about the time I have spent idolizing this band, but more Billy G, as he has seemed to break free of the Lone Wolf shackles and it became more clear this was his baby. In baseball I was Don Mattingly’s #1 fan, Hershel Walker in football, Billy Gibbons in music. What do these individuals have in common? They were role models. Not a DUI, not a spousal abuse, not a drug overdose, not a cheater. Until I read your web page. I read Blayney’s book around 1992 or so, I was in middle school and I was familiar with your name for a long time. I didn’t realize you suffered so greatly or that your involvement was so significant. It pains me to learn my idol not only cheated but did something so wrong to another being. I now know this is where tall tales and fun loving bullshit and poor morals and ethics are distinguished and where I would no longer consider myself to look up to Billy. I love to joke and I love credit but I have always prided myself on ethics and principles… I hold them dear. I wanted to say, the snippet of UNDER PRESSURE you played sounded very new wave and I may like it more than the finished product. Well that’s all. You have reached ZZ Top’s biggest fan and I can let others know. Bummer. Cheers and good luck. James."​
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VINYLSTYLUS DOT COM: Much of Eliminator was recorded at 124bpm, the tempo that considered perfect for dance music by the band’s associate Linden Hudson. An aspiring songwriter, former DJ and – at the time – drummer Frank Beard’s house-sitter, Hudson’s involvement in the recording of the album would come back to haunt them. Despite assisting Gibbons with the pre-production and developing of the material that would end up on both El Loco and Eliminator, his contribution wasn’t credited when either record was released.
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INFOMORY DOT COM: ‘Eliminator’ is a studio album of the American rock band ZZ Top. It was released on March 23, 1983 and topped the charts worldwide. Its lyrics were co-written by the band’s sound engineer Linden Hudson while the band denied it.

Posted by lindenhud1 on 2017-12-13 17:56:21

Tagged: , coast guard , airplane , plane , pilot , bp , oil spill , bp oil spill , crew member , news_crew , crew , news_crew_member , huge_story , huge_news_story , huge_oil_spill , environmental_disaster , usa , america , deepwater_horizon , flyover

Resistance Ski Speeder (1)

Resistance Ski Speeder (1)

Took a break from speeder bike making so I could finally edit these pictures 😉

While I think the Ski Speeder’s design is a bit too close to real-world aircraft, I do like it quite a bit. It was certainly interesting to build in any case, I’ve never made a real-world aircraft before (or rather, anything so close to one) so it was strange to find myself building corsair-like wings and a tubular fuselage with a tail/rudder. I also wanted to explore some new-to-me Lego techniques to really push myself into unknown territory. This meant using stacks of technic liftarms for the wings which I was quite pleased with considering I usually avoid using technic in any significant way 🙂

I was planning on making a section of Crait’s surface and a build for the red dust but I soon realised I’d need to build quite a substantial amount to look right with the wide model. Instead I went for a stylised computer generated background which I almost prefer as it makes the model stand out a bit better.

A big thanks to majortom whose Ski speeder inspired quite a few bits and pieces of my own including: fence pieces on the engine section, technic wheel rim for the tail and of course the outline of his cockpit area which was the basis of my design. And thanks to my buddy Kit Bricksto who kindly gave his opinion on the model during its construction 🙂

Let me know what you think, feedback good or bad is appreciated as always 😀

Posted by Inthert on 2018-02-11 14:46:01

Tagged: , Lego , moc , star , wars , last , Jedi , Crait , resistance , ski , speeder , skimmer , ship , salt , wings , tail , rudder , blue , weapons , pod , cockpit , engine , airplane , sky , aircraft

The Pink Tower

The Pink Tower

Sunset is daily but a pink tower is rare. This is such a moment captured at the sunset moment when the UNC Water Tower, one of the Landmarks at beautiful UNC Chapel Hill campus, was painted as pink nicely by sunset and was inserted into the sky of Carolina Blue. The water tower is sitting on the highest point at Chapel Hill and visiable tens of miles away usually. UNC Computer Science Professor Peter Calingert took me to the local air (Yes many UNC professors or staff has pilot certification and license to fly from Chapel Hill airport) boarding his small airplane a decade ago and asked me where is UNCCH, the first thing I can pin-point without any hesitation is this white dot from the airplane, and I was right. This picture was captured using a Canon G7.5 camera. Why Canon G7.5? Well there are some dust to its lens which upgraded the model a little half point 🙂

Posted by Liyun Yu on 2011-01-30 15:17:00

Tagged: , UNC , University of North Carolina , Campus , Chapel Hill , North Carolina , landmark , top of the hill , Peter Calingert , UNC computer science , Computer Science Department of UNC , UNCCH , airplane , Chapel Hill area , computer , science , professor , fine , arts , pink , tower , Liyun , Yu

Alejandro Maclean at Air Race

Alejandro Maclean at Air Race

Alejandro Maclean in front of the Houses of Parliament in Budapest, Hungary. (I’m sorry for the possible sensor dust – from now on I’ll always turn the 40D off and on when changing lens – and the complete lack of retouch and minor corrections, but I’m several hundred kilometers away from my computer.)

Posted by Jano Labs on 2008-08-22 11:25:47

Tagged: , airrace , redbull , budapest , hungary , janolabs , alejandro_maclean , mxs , airplane , parliament , river_danube , redbullairrace , flying , aeroplane , aircraft , aerobatics , sky

Nigel Lamb at Air Race

Nigel Lamb at Air Race

Nigel Lamb flying at Air Race 2008 Budapest. (I’m sorry for the possible sensor dust – from now on I’ll always turn the 40D off and on when changing lens – and the complete lack of retouch and minor corrections, but I’m several hundred kilometers away from my computer.)

Posted by Jano Labs on 2008-08-22 11:28:36

Tagged: , airrace , redbull , budapest , hungary , janolabs , nigel_lamb , mxs , airplane , parliament , river_danube , redbullairrace , flying , aeroplane , aircraft , aerobatics , sky

Nicolas Ivanoff at Air Race

Nicolas Ivanoff at Air Race

Nicolas Ivanoff at Air Race 2008 Budapest. (I’m sorry for the possible sensor dust – from now on I’ll always turn the 40D off and on when changing lens – and the complete lack of retouch and minor corrections, but I’m several hundred kilometers away from my computer.)

Posted by Jano Labs on 2008-08-22 11:24:05

Tagged: , airrace , redbull , budapest , hungary , janolabs , nicolas_ivanoff , extra300 , airplane , river_danube , redbullairrace , flying , aeroplane , aircraft , aerobatics , sky

plane BM 3-20-13

plane BM 3-20-13

A small airplane flies over Ceaser Chavez Park in Berkeley, CA Taken by a Nikon F4s with a Promaster 7 100-400 lens (at 400) on Fujicolor Superia 400. Negative scanned into computer by an HP G4010, dust reduction done in Paint Shop Pro Photo X2. Cropped severely to square.

Line below plane is either a scratch in the negative or a artifact of the scanner (It runs through several of my negatives, always the 4th or 5th negative of a stick of 6…)

Posted by THE Holy Hand Grenade! on 2013-04-22 17:29:41

Tagged: , Airplane , Berkeley Marina , Berkeley, CA , Nikon F4s , Promaster 100-400 ƒ4.5-6.7 , Fujicolor , Superia 400 , geotagged , square

Nijmegen sunset

Nijmegen sunset

550d + 17-40 f4 L

Those tiny black spots are birds. not dust :p

Posted by David Holleman on 2012-03-01 18:58:02

Tagged: , 200mm , 2012 , 24hr , 28 , 550d , 70200 , action , bmw , canon , championchip , circuit , crash , ede , evo , fia , fiesta , ford , gt1 , gt3 , le , macro , mans , nikon , ovd , race , racecar , ralley , rally , shortcircuit , sigma , sport , sports , subaru , world , wrc , zandvoort , zolder , drifting , drift , driftking , opel , renault , flower , landscape , netherlands , ooij , heide , black , white , pc , computer , airplane , boeing , airbus , 737 , 747 , 787 , a380

Comet PanStarrs

Comet PanStarrs

This photo was taken as part of the HooHaa52 Challenge. This week’s topic is "In Flight".

Last week, the topic for the challenge was Decay. And on the final day that I could take a photo, Comet PanStarrs was supposed to become visible in the Northern Hemisphere (prior days would be harder due to the glow from sunset making it hard to find). I thought that this would make a unique shot for decay, justified due to the decay of dust and ice from the comet itself, forming the tail of the comet. It was unfortunately cloudy.

I still planned on getting photos, but when I saw the topic was Flight for the next week, I couldn’t help but believe luck was being a tad bit nice to me. Of course, the first clear night I get and I was so busy that I forgot to go out during the rather limited amount of time I had to see it. Weather predictions were iffy for the remainder of the week.

But weather was nice to me and I got another opportunity Wednesday. I got out my equipment and headed out to a location I felt was both close and able to give me a clear view of the horizon. After standing around for at least 20 minutes trying to spot it, it finally came into the view of my binoculars. Making sure I could find it with my naked eyes, I trained my camera and started taking a series of photos.

This photo felt the sharpest of the bunch, which was sad because I had another one where the lights on the top of a passing van created a nice red streak at the bottom of the shot. The comet was fuzzier in that one.

It wasn’t until I got on the computer that I realized I also captured the flight of a plane in the shot. So, visualizing the concept of "flight", the comet, the plane, the moon, and the stars are all in flight in this image. 🙂

The comet will be highlighted with a note on the shot.

Check out the original size to see it a bit closer: ORIGINAL

Posted by TripCyclone on 2013-03-18 23:14:08

Tagged: , astronomy , astrophotography , comet , Panstarrs , Comet PanStarrs , Maryville , Missouri , Canon , Moon , Lunar , nighttime , night sky , plane , airplane , stars , sunset , HooHaa52 , HH52Y3_11 , flight

One Night in October

One Night in October

Quelle:
de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milchstra%C3%9Fe

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milky_Way

Die Milchstraße, auch Galaxis, ist die Galaxie, in der sich unser Sonnensystem mit der Erde befindet. Entsprechend ihrer Form als flache Scheibe, die aus Milliarden von Sternen besteht, ist die Milchstraße von der Erde aus als bandförmige Aufhellung am Nachthimmel sichtbar, die sich über 360° erstreckt. Ihrer Struktur nach zählt die Milchstraße zu den Balkenspiralgalaxien.
Den Namen Milchstraßensystem trägt unser Sternsystem nach der Milchstraße, die als freiäugige Innenansicht des Systems von der Erde aus wie ein quer über das Firmament gesetzter milchiger Pinselstrich erscheint. Dass dieses weißliche Band sich in Wirklichkeit aus unzähligen einzelnen Sternen zusammensetzt, wurde erst 1609 von Galileo Galilei erkannt, der die Erscheinung als Erster durch ein Fernrohr betrachtete. Es sind nach heutiger Schätzung ca. 100 bis 300 Milliarden Sterne.

Schon im Altertum war die Milchstraße als heller, schmaler Streifen am Nachthimmel bekannt. Ihr altgriechischer Name galaxias (γαλαξίας) – von dem auch der heutige Fachausdruck „Galaxis“ stammt – ist von dem Wort gala (γάλα, Milch) abgeleitet.[1] Wie dem deutschen Wort „Milchstraße“ liegt also auch dem altgriechischen Begriff das „milchige“ Aussehen zugrunde.

Eine antike griechische Sage versucht, diesen Begriff mythologisch zu erklären: Danach habe Zeus seinen Sohn Herakles, den ihm die sterbliche Frau Alkmene geschenkt hatte, an der Brust seiner göttlichen Frau Hera trinken lassen, als diese schlief. Herakles sollte auf diese Weise göttliche Kräfte erhalten. Aber er saugte so ungestüm, dass Hera erwachte und den ihr fremden Säugling zurückstieß; dabei wurde ein Strahl ihrer Milch über den ganzen Himmel verspritzt.

Einer germanischen Sage zufolge erhielt die Milchstraße nach dem Gott des Lichtes, Heimdall, auch Iring genannt, den Namen Iringsstraße (laut Felix Dahn, Walhall – germanische Götter- und Heldensagen). Die afrikanischen San gaben der Milchstraße den Namen „Rückgrat der Nacht“.

Zur ersten Vorstellung der Scheibenform des Milchstraßensystems gelangte bereits Wilhelm Herschel im Jahr 1785 aufgrund systematischer Sternzählungen (Stellarstatistik). Diese Methode konnte aber nicht zu einem realistischen Bild führen, da das Licht weiter entfernter Sterne stark durch interstellare Staubwolken abgeschwächt wird, ein Effekt, dessen wahre Bedeutung erst in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts vollständig erfasst wurde. Durch Untersuchungen zur Verteilung der Kugelsternhaufen im Raum gelangte Harlow Shapley 1919 zu realistischen Abschätzungen der Größe des Milchstraßensystems und zu der Erkenntnis, dass die Sonne nicht – wie bis dahin, z. B. von Jacobus Kapteyn, angenommen – im Zentrum der Galaxis sitzt, sondern eher an deren Rand. Edwin Hubbles Messungen der Entfernungen von Spiralnebeln zeigten, dass diese außerhalb des Milchstraßensystems liegen und tatsächlich wie dieses eigenständige Galaxien sind.
Das Band der Milchstraße erstreckt sich als unregelmäßig breiter, schwach milchig-heller Streifen über dem Firmament.[2] Seine Erscheinung rührt daher, dass in ihm mit bloßem Auge keine Einzelsterne wahrgenommen werden, sondern eine Vielzahl lichtschwacher Sterne der galaktischen Scheibe und des Bulges (in Richtung des galaktischen Zentrums). Von der Südhalbkugel aus steht das helle Zentrum der Milchstraße hoch am Himmel, während man von der Nordhalbkugel zum Rand hin blickt. Daher kann man das Band der Milchstraße am besten von der Südhalbkugel aus beobachten. Im Dezember und Januar kann der hellste Bereich der Milchstraße nicht oder nur sehr schlecht beobachtet werden, weil sich die Sonne zwischen dem Zentrum der Galaxis und der Erde befindet. Gute Beobachtungsbedingungen sind bei klarer Luft und bei nur geringer Lichtverschmutzung durch künstliche Lichtquellen gegeben. Alle der maximal 6000 mit bloßem Auge sichtbaren Sterne des Nachthimmels gehören zum Milchstraßensystem.

Das Milchstraßenband verläuft unter anderem durch die Sternbilder Schütze (in dieser Richtung liegt auch das galaktische Zentrum), Adler, Schwan, Kassiopeia, Perseus, Fuhrmann, Zwillinge, Orion, Kiel des Schiffs, Zentaur, Kreuz des Südens und Skorpion. Die mittlere Ebene des Milchstraßensystems ist gegenüber dem Himmelsäquator um einen Winkel von etwa 63° gekippt.

Astronomen verwenden gelegentlich ein spezielles, an die Geometrie des Milchstraßensystems angepasstes galaktisches Koordinatensystem, bestehend aus Länge l und Breite b. Die galaktische Breite beträgt 0° in der Ebene des Milchstraßensystems, +90° am galaktischen Nordpol und −90° am galaktischen Südpol. Die galaktische Länge, die ebenfalls in Grad angegeben wird, hat ihren Ursprung (l = 0°) in Richtung des galaktischen Zentrums und nimmt nach Osten hin zu.

Die Erforschung der Struktur des Milchstraßensystems ist schwieriger als die der Strukturen anderer Galaxien, da Beobachtungen nur von einem Punkt innerhalb der Scheibe gemacht werden können. Wegen der erwähnten Absorption sichtbaren Lichts durch interstellaren Staub ist es nicht möglich, durch visuelle Beobachtungen ein vollständiges Bild des Milchstraßensystems zu erhalten. Große Fortschritte wurden erst gemacht, als Beobachtungen in anderen Wellenlängenbereichen, insbesondere im Radiofrequenzbereich und im Infraroten möglich wurden. Dennoch sind viele Details des Aufbaus der Galaxis noch nicht bekannt.

Das Milchstraßensystem wurde früher als vier- oder fünfarmig betrachtet, nun gilt es als zweiarmige Balkenspiralgalaxie.[3] Es besteht aus etwa 100 bis 300 Milliarden Sternen und großen Mengen interstellarer Materie, die nochmals 600 Millionen bis einige Milliarden Sonnenmassen ausmacht (die Anzahl der Sterne und damit auch die Gesamtmasse unserer Galaxis kann auf Basis von Berechnungen und Beobachtungen nur geschätzt werden, woraus sich der große Toleranzbereich der Zahlen ergibt). Die Masse dieses inneren Bereichs der Galaxis wird mit ungefähr 180 Milliarden Sonnenmassen veranschlagt. Ihre Ausdehnung in der galaktischen Ebene beträgt etwa 100.000 Lichtjahre (30 kpc), die Dicke der Scheibe etwa 3000 Lichtjahre (920 pc) und die der zentralen Ausbauchung (engl. Bulge) etwa 16.000 Lichtjahre (5 kpc). Zum Vergleich: Der Andromedanebel hat eine Ausdehnung von etwa 150.000 Lj. und das drittgrößte Mitglied der lokalen Gruppe, der Dreiecksnebel M 33, ca. 50.000 Lj. Die Angaben der Dicke müssen aber eventuell noch bis zum Doppelten nach oben korrigiert werden, wie der australische Wissenschaftler Bryan Gaensler und sein Team im Januar 2008 äußerten.[4][5] Aus der Bewegung interstellaren Gases und der Sternverteilung im Bulge ergibt sich für diesen eine längliche Form. Dieser Balken bildet mit der Verbindungslinie des Sonnensystems zum Zentrum des Milchstraßensystems einen Winkel von 45°. Die Galaxis ist also vermutlich eine Balkenspiralgalaxie vom Hubble-Typ SBc. Gemäß einer Bestimmung mithilfe des Infrarot-Weltraumteleskops Spitzer ist die Balkenstruktur mit einer Ausdehnung von 27.000 Lichtjahren überraschend lang.

Basierend auf der bekannten Umlaufzeit der Sonne und ihrem Abstand vom galaktischen Zentrum kann nach dem dritten keplerschen Gesetz zumindest die Gesamtmasse berechnet werden, die sich innerhalb der Sonnenbahn befindet.[6] Die Gesamtmasse des Milchstraßensystems wird auf etwa 400 Milliarden Sonnenmassen geschätzt,[7][8] damit ist sie neben dem Andromedanebel (800 Milliarden Sonnenmassen) die massereichste Galaxie der Lokalen Gruppe.

Galaktischer Halo
Umgeben ist die Galaxis vom kugelförmigen galaktischen Halo mit einem Durchmesser von etwa 165.000 Lichtjahren (50 kpc), einer Art von galaktischer „Atmosphäre“. In ihm befinden sich neben den etwa 150 bekannten Kugelsternhaufen nur weitere alte Sterne, darunter RR Lyrae-Veränderliche, und Gas sehr geringer Dichte. Ausnahme sind die heißen Blue-Straggler-Sterne. Dazu kommen große Mengen Dunkle Materie mit etwa 1 Billion Sonnenmassen, darunter auch so genannte MACHOs. Anders als die galaktische Scheibe ist der Halo weitgehend staubfrei und enthält fast ausschließlich Sterne der älteren, metallarmen Population II, deren Orbit sehr stark gegen die galaktische Ebene geneigt ist. Das Alter des inneren Teils des Halo wurde in einer im Mai 2012 vorgestellten neuen Methode zur Altersbestimmung vom Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore mit 11,4 Milliarden Jahren (mit einer Unsicherheit von 0,7 Milliarden Jahren) angegeben. Dem Astronomen Jason Kalirai vom Space Telescope Science Institute gelang diese Altersbestimmung durch den Vergleich der Halo-Zwerge der Milchstraße mit den gut untersuchten Zwergen im Kugelsternhaufen Messier 4, die im Sternbild Skorpion liegen.[9]

Galaktische Scheibe
Der Großteil der Sterne innerhalb der Galaxis ist annähernd gleichmäßig auf die galaktische Scheibe verteilt. Sie enthält im Gegensatz zum Halo vor allem Sterne der Population I, welche sich durch einen hohen Anteil schwerer Elemente auszeichnen.

Spiralarme
Teil der Scheibe sind auch die für das Milchstraßensystem charakteristischen Spiralarme. In den Spiralarmen befinden sich enorme Ansammlungen von Wasserstoff und auch die größten HII-Regionen, die Sternentstehungsgebiete der Galaxis. Daher befinden sich dort auch viele Protosterne, junge Sterne des T-Tauri-Typs und Herbig-Haro-Objekte. Während ihrer Lebenszeit bewegen sich Sterne von ihren Geburtsstätten weg und verteilen sich auf die Scheibe. Besonders massereiche und leuchtkräftige Sterne entfernen sich allerdings aufgrund ihrer kürzeren Lebensdauer nicht so weit von den Spiralarmen, weswegen diese hervortreten. Daher gehören zu den dort befindlichen stellaren Objekten vor allem Sterne der Spektralklassen O und B, Überriesen und Cepheiden, alle jünger als 100 Millionen Jahre. Sie stellen jedoch nur etwa ein Prozent der Sterne im Milchstraßensystem. Der größte Teil der Masse der Galaxis besteht aus alten, massearmen Sternen. Der „Zwischenraum“ zwischen den Spiralarmen ist also nicht leer, sondern ist einfach nur weniger leuchtstark.
Die Spiralstruktur der Galaxis konnte durch die Beobachtung der Verteilung von neutralem Wasserstoff bestätigt werden. Die entdeckten Spiralarme wurden nach den in ihrer Richtung liegenden Sternbildern benannt.

Die Zeichnung rechts stellt den Aufbau des Milchstraßensystems schematisch dar. Das Zentrum ist im sichtbaren Licht nicht direkt beobachtbar, ebenso wie der hinter ihm liegende Bereich. Die Sonne (gelber Kreis) liegt zwischen den Spiralarmen Sagittarius (nach Sternbild Schütze) und Perseus im Orionarm. Vermutlich ist dieser Arm nicht vollständig, siehe braune Linie in der Abbildung. Im Verhältnis zu dieser unmittelbaren Umgebung bewegt sich die Sonne mit etwa 30 km/s in Richtung des Sternbildes Herkules. Der innerste Arm ist der Norma-Arm (nach Sternbild Winkelmaß, auch 3-kpc-Arm), der äußerste (nicht in der Abbildung) ist der Cygnus-Arm (nach Sternbild Schwan), welcher vermutlich die Fortsetzung des Scutum-Crux-Arms (nach Sternbildern Schild und Kreuz des Südens) ist .

Wissenschaftler der Universität von Wisconsin veröffentlichten im Juni 2008 Auswertungen von Infrarotaufnahmen des Spitzer-Teleskopes, die das Milchstraßensystem nun als zweiarmige Galaxie darstellen. Sagittarius und Norma sind in dieser Darstellung nur noch als dünne Nebenarme erkenntlich, da diese nur durch eine überschüssige Verteilung von Gas gekennzeichnet sind während die restlichen beiden Arme durch eine hohe Dichte alter rötlicher Sterne gekennzeichnet sind.[10] Eine jüngere Untersuchung der Verteilung von Sternentstehungsgebieten und junger Sterne scheint hingegen die bekannte vierarmige Struktur der Milchstraße zu bestätigen.[11] Die Milchstraße besteht daher scheinbar aus vier Spiralarmen die sich primär durch Gaswolken und junge Sterne abzeichnen, wobei zwei Arme zusätzlich durch eine hohe Konzentration älterer Sterne charakterisiert sind. Neben diesen unterschiedlichen Auffassungen bezüglich der Struktur der Galaxis sollte beachtet werden, dass ein klar definiertes logarithmisches Spiralmuster nur in seltenen Fällen bei anderen Spiralgalaxien über die Gesamtheit der Scheibe beobachtet werden kann und die vorhandenen Arme oft extreme Abzweigungen, Verästelungen und Verschränkungen aufweisen.[12][13] Die wahrscheinliche Natur des lokalen Arms als solche Unregelmäßigkeit ist ein Hinweis darauf, dass solche Strukturen in der Milchstraße häufig auftreten könnten.[14]

Welche Prozesse für die Entstehung der Spiralstruktur verantwortlich sind, ist bislang noch nicht eindeutig geklärt. Jedoch ist klar, dass die zu den Spiralarmen gehörigen Sterne keine starre Struktur sind, die sich in Formation um das galaktische Zentrum dreht. Wäre dies der Fall, würde sich die Spiralstruktur des Milchstraßensystems und anderer Spiralgalaxien aufgrund der unterschiedlichen Bahngeschwindigkeiten innerhalb relativ kurzer Zeit aufwickeln und unkenntlich werden. Eine Erklärung bietet die Dichtewellentheorie, nach der die Spiralarme Zonen erhöhter Materiedichte und Sternentstehung sind, die sich unabhängig von den Sternen durch die Scheibe bewegen. Die durch die Spiralarme verursachten Störungen in den Bahnen der Sterne können zu Lindblad-Resonanzen führen.

Sterne der galaktischen Scheibe
Die zur Population I zählenden Sterne der galaktischen Scheibe lassen sich mit zunehmender Streuung um die Hauptebene und Alter in drei Unterpopulationen einteilen. Die so genannte „Thin Disk“ in einem Bereich von 700 bis 800 Lichtjahren über und unterhalb der galaktischen Ebene enthält neben den oben genannten leuchtkräftigen Sternen der Spiralarme, die sich nur maximal 500 Lichtjahre von der Ebene entfernen, Sterne der Spektralklassen A und F, einige Riesen der Klassen A, F, G und K, sowie Zwergsterne der Klassen G, K und M und auch einige Weiße Zwerge. Die Metallizität dieser Sterne ist vergleichbar mit der der Sonne, meist aber auch doppelt so hoch, ihr Alter liegt bei etwa einer Milliarde Jahren.

Eine weitere Gruppe ist die der mittelalten Sterne (Alter bis zu fünf Milliarden Jahre). Dazu zählen die Sonne und weitere Zwergsterne der Spektraltypen G, K und M, sowie einige Unter- und Rote Riesen. Der Metallgehalt ist hier deutlich geringer mit nur etwa 50 bis 100 Prozent dessen der Sonne. Auch ist die Bahnexzentrizität der galaktischen Orbits dieser Sterne höher und sie befinden sich nicht weiter als 1500 Lichtjahre über oder unterhalb der galaktischen Ebene.

Zwischen maximal 2500 Lichtjahren ober- und unterhalb der Hauptebene erstreckt sich die „Thick Disk“. Dort befinden sich rote K- und M-Zwerge, Weiße Zwerge, sowie einige Unterriesen und Rote Riesen, aber auch langperiodische Veränderliche. Ihr Alter erreicht bis zu zehn Milliarden Jahre und sie sind vergleichsweise metallarm (etwa ein Viertel der Sonnenmetallizität). Diese Population ähnelt auch vielen Sternen im Bulge.

Die galaktische Scheibe ist nicht vollkommen gerade, durch gravitative Wechselwirkung mit den Magellanschen Wolken ist sie leicht in deren Richtung gebogen.

Das Zentrum des Milchstraßensystems liegt im Sternbild Schütze und ist hinter dunklen Staub- und Gaswolken verborgen, so dass es im sichtbaren Licht nicht direkt beobachtet werden kann. Beginnend in den 1950er Jahren ist es gelungen, im Radiowellenbereich sowie mit Infrarotstrahlung und Röntgenstrahlung zunehmend detailreichere Bilder aus der nahen Umgebung des galaktischen Zentrums zu gewinnen. Man hat dort eine starke Radioquelle entdeckt, bezeichnet als Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), die aus einem sehr kleinen Gebiet strahlt. Diese Massenkonzentration wird von einer Gruppe von Sternen in einem Radius von weniger als einem halben Lichtjahr mit einer Umlaufzeit von etwa 100 Jahren sowie einem Schwarzen Loch mit 1300 Sonnenmassen in drei Lichtjahren Entfernung umkreist. Der dem zentralen Schwarzen Loch am nächsten liegende Stern S2 umläuft das galaktische Zentrum in einer Entfernung von etwa 17 Lichtstunden in einem Zeitraum von nur 15,2 Jahren. Seine Bahn konnte inzwischen über einen vollen Umlauf hinweg beobachtet werden. Aus den Beobachtungen der Bewegungen der Sterne des zentralen Sternhaufens ergibt sich, dass sich innerhalb dieser Region von 15,4 Millionen km Durchmesser eine Masse von geschätzten 4,31 Millionen Sonnenmassen befinden muss.[15] Die im Rahmen der Relativitätstheorie plausibelste und einzige mit allen Beobachtungen konsistente Erklärung für diese große Massenkonzentration ist die Anwesenheit eines Schwarzen Lochs.

Am 9. November 2010 machte Doug Finkbeiner vom Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics bekannt, dass er zwei riesenhafte kugelförmige Blasen entdeckt habe, die aus der Mitte der Milchstraße nach Norden und Süden hinausgreifen. Die Entdeckung ist mit der Hilfe von Daten des Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope gelungen. Der Durchmesser der Blasen beträgt jeweils etwa 25.000 Lichtjahre; sie erstrecken sich am südlichen Nachthimmel von der Jungfrau bis zum Kranich. Ihr Ursprung ist bisher noch nicht geklärt.[16][17]

Größenvergleich
Man bekommt eine anschauliche Vorstellung von der Größe unserer Galaxis mit ihren 100 bis 300 Milliarden Sternen, wenn man sie sich im Maßstab 1:1017 verkleinert als Schneetreiben auf einem Gebiet von 10 km Durchmesser und einer Höhe von etwa 1 km im Mittel vorstellt. Jede Schneeflocke entspricht dabei einem Stern und es gibt etwa drei Stück pro Kubikmeter. Unsere Sonne hätte in diesem Maßstab einen Durchmesser von etwa 10 nm, wäre also kleiner als ein Virus. Selbst die Plutobahn, die sich im Mittel etwa 40-mal so weit von der Sonne befindet wie die Bahn der Erde, läge mit einem Durchmesser von 0,1 mm an der Grenze der visuellen Sichtbarkeit. Pluto selbst hätte ebenso wie die Erde lediglich atomare Dimension. Damit demonstriert dieses Modell auch die geringe durchschnittliche Massendichte unserer Galaxis.
Die Sonne umkreist das Zentrum des Milchstraßensystems in einem Abstand von 25.000 bis 28.000 Lichtjahren (≈ 250 Em oder 7,94 ± 0,42 kpc)[18] und befindet sich nördlich der Mittelebene der galaktischen Scheibe innerhalb des Orion-Arms, in einem weitgehend staubfreien Raumgebiet, das als „Lokale Blase“ bekannt ist. Für einen Umlauf um das Zentrum der Galaxis, ein so genanntes galaktisches Jahr, benötigt sie 220 bis 240 Millionen Jahre, was einer Rotationsgeschwindigkeit von etwa 220 km/s entspricht. Die Erforschung dieser Rotation ist mittels der Eigenbewegung und der Radialgeschwindigkeit vieler Sterne möglich; aus ihnen wurden um 1930 die Oortschen Rotationsformeln abgeleitet. Heutzutage kann auch die durch die Umlaufbewegung des Sonnensystems bedingte scheinbare Bewegung des Milchstraßenzentrums gegenüber Hintergrundquellen direkt beobachtet werden, so dass die Umlaufgeschwindigkeit des Sonnensystems unmittelbar messbar ist.[19] Neuere Messungen haben eine Umlaufgeschwindigkeit von ca. 267 km/s (961.200 km/h) ergeben.[20]

Das Sonnensystem umläuft das galaktische Zentrum nicht auf einer ungestörten ebenen Keplerbahn. Die in der Scheibe des Milchstraßensystems verteilte Masse übt eine starke Störung aus, so dass die Sonne zusätzlich zu ihrer Umlaufbahn um das Zentrum auch regelmäßig durch die Scheibe auf und ab oszilliert. Die Scheibe durchquert sie dabei etwa alle 30 bis 45 Millionen Jahre einmal.[21] Vor ca. 1,5 Millionen Jahren hat sie die Scheibe in nördlicher Richtung passiert und befindet sich jetzt etwa 65 Lichtjahre (ca. 20 pc)[22] über ihr. Die größte Entfernung wird etwa 250 Lichtjahre (80 pc) betragen, dann kehrt sich die Bewegung wieder um.[21]

Größere datierbare Krater auf der Erde sowie erdgeschichtliche Massenaussterben scheinen eine Periodizität von 34 bis 37 Millionen Jahren aufzuweisen, was auffällig mit der Periodizität der Scheibenpassagen übereinstimmt. Möglicherweise stören während einer Scheibendurchquerung die in Scheibennähe stärker werdenden Gravitationsfelder die Oortsche Wolke des Sonnensystems, so dass eine größere Anzahl von Kometen ins innere Sonnensystem gelangt und die Anzahl schwerer Impakte auf der Erde zunimmt. Die betreffenden Perioden sind jedoch bisher nicht genau genug bekannt, um definitiv einen Zusammenhang festzustellen;[21] neuere Ergebnisse (Scheibendurchgang alle 42 ± 2 Millionen Jahre) sprechen eher dagegen.[23] Eine neue Studie des Max-Planck Instituts für Astronomie hat gezeigt, dass es sich bei der scheinbaren Periodizität der Einschläge um statistische Artefakte handelt und es keinen solchen Zusammenhang gibt.

Um das Milchstraßensystem herum sind einige Zwerggalaxien versammelt. Die bekanntesten davon sind die Große und die Kleine Magellansche Wolke, mit denen das Milchstraßensystem über eine etwa 300.000 Lichtjahre lange Wasserstoffgasbrücke, dem Magellanschen Strom, verbunden ist.

Die dem Milchstraßensystem am nächsten gelegene Galaxie ist der Canis-Major-Zwerg, mit einer Entfernung von 42.000 Lichtjahren vom Zentrum des Milchstraßensystems und 25.000 Lichtjahren von unserem Sonnensystem. Die Zwerggalaxie wird zurzeit von den Gezeitenkräften des Milchstraßensystems auseinandergerissen und hinterlässt dabei ein Filament aus Sternen, das sich um die Galaxis windet, den so genannten Monoceros-Ring. Ob es sich dabei allerdings tatsächlich um die Überreste einer Zwerggalaxie oder um eine zufällige, projektionsbedingte Häufung handelt, ist derzeit noch nicht sicher. Andernfalls wäre die 50.000 Lichtjahre vom galaktischen Zentrum entfernte Sagittarius-Zwerggalaxie die nächste Galaxie, die ebenfalls gerade durch das Milchstraßensystem einverleibt wird.

Das Milchstraßensystem verleibt sich beständig Zwerggalaxien ein und nimmt dadurch an Masse zu. Während der Verschmelzung hinterlassen die Zwergsysteme Ströme aus Sternen und interstellarer Materie, die durch die Gezeitenkräfte des Milchstraßensystems aus den kleinen Galaxien herausgerissen werden (siehe auch: Wechselwirkende Galaxien). Dadurch entstehen Strukturen wie der Magellansche Strom, der Monoceros-Ring und der Virgo-Strom, sowie die anderen Hochgeschwindigkeitswolken in der Umgebung unserer Galaxis.

Lokale Gruppe
Mit der Andromeda-Galaxie, dem Dreiecksnebel (M 33) und einigen anderen kleineren Galaxien bildet das Milchstraßensystem die Lokale Gruppe, wobei das Milchstraßensystem die massereichste Galaxie darunter ist, obwohl es nicht die größte Ausdehnung besitzt. Die Lokale Gruppe ist Bestandteil des Virgo-Superhaufens, der nach dem Virgohaufen in seinem Zentrum benannt ist. Auf diesen bewegt sich die Lokale Gruppe zu. Der lokale Superhaufen strebt mit anderen Großstrukturen dem Shapley-Superhaufen entgegen (die frühere Annahme, Ziel dieses Strebens sei der Große Attraktor, ist überholt).[25]

Die Andromeda-Galaxie ist eine der wenigen Galaxien im Universum, deren Spektrum eine Blauverschiebung aufweist: Die Andromeda-Galaxie und das Milchstraßensystem bewegen sich mit einer Geschwindigkeit von 120 km/s aufeinander zu. Allerdings gibt die Blauverschiebung nur Aufschluss über die Geschwindigkeitskomponente parallel zur Verbindungslinie beider Systeme, während die Komponente senkrecht zu dieser Linie unbekannt ist. Vermutlich werden die beiden Galaxien in etwa drei Milliarden Jahren zusammenstoßen und zu einer größeren Galaxie verschmelzen. Für den Ablauf der Kollision können mangels Kenntnis der Raumgeschwindigkeiten und wegen der Komplexität der beim Zusammenstoß ablaufenden Prozesse nur Wahrscheinlichkeitsaussagen gemacht werden.[26] Nach der Verschmelzung der beiden Galaxien wird das Endprodukt voraussichtlich eine massereiche elliptische Galaxie sein. Als Name für diese Galaxie wird von Cox-Loeb 2008 in ihrem Artikel der Arbeitsname „Milkomeda“ benutzt, eine Verschmelzung des englischen Milky Way und Andromeda.[26]

Alter
Messungen aus dem Jahr 2004 zufolge ist das Milchstraßensystem etwa 13,6 Milliarden Jahre alt. Die Genauigkeit dieser Abschätzung, die das Alter anhand des Berylliumanteils einiger Kugelsternhaufen bestimmt, wird mit etwa 800 Millionen Jahren angegeben. Da das Alter des Universums von 13,8 Milliarden Jahren als recht verlässlich bestimmt gilt, hieße das, dass die Entstehung der Milchstraße auf die Frühzeit des Universums datiert.

2007 wurde zunächst für den Stern HE 1523-0901 im galaktischen Halo von der ESO-Sternwarte in Hamburg ein Alter von 13,2 Milliarden Jahren festgestellt[27]. 2014 wurde dann für den Stern SM0313, 6000 Lj von der Erde entfernt, von der Australian National University ein Alter von 13,6 Milliarden Jahren dokumentiert. Als älteste bekannte Objekte der Milchstraße setzen diese Datierungen eine unterste Grenze, die im Bereich der Messgenauigkeit der Abschätzung von 2004 liegt.

Nach derselben Methode kann das Alter der dünnen galaktischen Scheibe durch die ältesten dort gemessenen Objekte abgeschätzt werden, wodurch sich ein Alter von etwa 8,8 Milliarden Jahren mit einer Schätzbreite von etwa 1,7 Milliarden Jahren ergibt. Auf dieser Basis ergäbe sich eine zeitliche Lücke von etwa drei bis sieben Milliarden Jahren zwischen der Bildung des galaktischen Zentrums und der äußeren Scheibe.

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.[15][16][17][nb 1] Its name “milky” is derived from its appearance as a dim glowing band arching across the night sky in which the naked eye cannot distinguish individual stars. The term “Milky Way” is a translation of the Latin via lactea, from the Greek γαλαξίας κύκλος (galaxías kýklos, "milky circle").[18][19][20] From Earth, the Milky Way appears as a band because its disk-shaped structure is viewed from within. Galileo Galilei first resolved the band of light into individual stars with his telescope in 1610. Up until the early 1920s, most astronomers thought that all of the stars in the universe were contained inside of the Milky Way. Following the 1920 Great Debate between the astronomers Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis,[21] observations by Edwin Hubble definitively showed that the Milky Way is just one of many billions of galaxies.[22]

The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy some 100,000–120,000 light-years in diameter, which contains 100–400 billion stars. It may contain at least as many planets as well.[23][24] The Solar System is located within the disk, about 27,000 light-years away from the Galactic Center, on the inner edge of one of the spiral-shaped concentrations of gas and dust called the Orion Arm. The stars in the inner ≈10,000 light-years form a bulge and one or more bars that radiate from the bulge. The very center is marked by an intense radio source, named Sagittarius A*, which is likely to be a supermassive black hole.

Stars and gases at a wide range of distances from the Galactic Center orbit at approximately 220 kilometers per second. The constant rotation speed contradicts the laws of Keplerian dynamics and suggests that much of the mass of the Milky Way does not emit or absorb electromagnetic radiation. This mass has been given the name “dark matter”.[25] The rotational period is about 240 million years at the position of the Sun.[11] The Milky Way as a whole is moving at a velocity of approximately 600 km per second with respect to extragalactic frames of reference. The oldest known star in the Milky Way is at least 13.82 [26] billion years old and thus must have formed shortly after the Big Bang.[7]

Surrounded by several smaller satellite galaxies, the Milky Way is part of the Local Group of galaxies, which forms a subcomponent of the Virgo Supercluster, which again forms a subcomponent of the Laniakea supercluster.
When observing the night sky, the term “Milky Way” is limited to the hazy band of white light some 30 degrees wide arcing across the sky.[29] Although all of the individual stars that can be seen in the entire sky with the naked eye are part of the Milky Way Galaxy,[30] the light in this band originates from the accumulation of un-resolved stars and other material when viewed in the direction of the Galactic plane. Dark regions within the band, such as the Great Rift and the Coalsack, correspond to areas where light from distant stars is blocked by interstellar dust.

The Milky Way has a relatively low surface brightness. Its visibility can be greatly reduced by background light such as light pollution or stray light from the Moon. It is readily visible when the limiting magnitude is +5.1 or better and shows a great deal of detail at +6.1.[31] This makes the Milky Way difficult to see from any brightly lit urban or suburban location, but very prominent when viewed from a rural area when the Moon is below the horizon.[nb 2]

As viewed from Earth, the visible region of the Milky Way’s Galactic plane occupies an area of the sky that includes 30 constellations. The center of the Milky Way lies in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius; it is here that the Milky Way is brightest. From Sagittarius, the hazy band of white light appears to pass westward to the Galactic anticenter in Auriga. The band then continues westward the rest of the way around the sky, back to Sagittarius. The band divides the night sky into two roughly equal hemispheres.

The Galactic plane is inclined by about 60 degrees to the ecliptic (the plane of Earth’s orbit). Relative to the celestial equator, it passes as far north as the constellation of Cassiopeia and as far south as the constellation of Crux, indicating the high inclination of Earth’s equatorial plane and the plane of the ecliptic, relative to the Galactic plane. The north Galactic pole is situated at right ascension 12h 49m, declination +27.4° (B1950) near β Comae Berenices, and the south Galactic pole is near α Sculptoris. Because of this high inclination, depending on the time of night and year, the arc of Milky Way may appear relatively low or relatively high in the sky. For observers from approximately 65 degrees north to 65 degrees south on Earth’s surface, the Milky Way passes directly overhead twice a day.
The stellar disk of the Milky Way Galaxy is approximately 100,000 ly (30 kpc) in diameter, and is, on average, about 1,000 ly (0.3 kpc) thick.[2][3] As a guide to the relative physical scale of the Milky Way, if it were reduced to 100 m in diameter, the Solar System, including the hypothesized Oort cloud, would be no more than 1 mm in width, about the size of a grain of sand. The nearest star, Proxima Centauri, would be 4.2 mm distant.[nb 3] Alternatively visualized, if the Solar System out to Neptune were the size of a US quarter (25mm), the Milky Way would have a diameter of 4,000 kilometers, or approximately the breadth of the United States.

Estimates for the mass of the Milky Way vary, depending upon the method and data used. At the low end of the estimate range, the mass of the Milky Way is 5.8×1011 solar masses (M☉), somewhat smaller than the Andromeda Galaxy.[33][34][35] Measurements using the Very Long Baseline Array in 2009 found velocities as large as 254 km/s for stars at the outer edge of the Milky Way.[36] As the orbital velocity depends on the total mass inside the orbital radius, this suggests that the Milky Way is more massive, roughly equaling the mass of Andromeda Galaxy at 7×1011 M☉ within 160,000 ly (49 kpc) of its center.[37] A 2010 measurement of the radial velocity of halo stars finds the mass enclosed within 80 kiloparsecs is 7×1011 M☉.[38] According to a study published in 2014, the mass of the entire Milky Way is estimated to be 8.5×1011 M☉,[39] which is about half the mass of the Andromeda Galaxy.[39]

Most of the mass of the Milky Way appears to be matter of unknown form that interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces, which is dubbed dark matter. A dark matter halo is spread out relatively uniformly to a distance beyond one hundred kiloparsecs from the Galactic Center. Mathematical models of the Milky Way suggest that the total mass of the entire Galaxy lies in the range 1–1.5×1012 M☉.[8] More recent studies indicate a mass as large as 4.5×1012 M☉ [40] and as small as 0.8×1012 M☉.[41] The Milky Way contains at least 100 billion planets[42] and between 200 and 400 billion stars.[43][44] The exact figure depends on the number of very low-mass, or dwarf stars, which are hard to detect, especially at distances of more than 300 ly (90 pc) from the Sun. As a comparison, the neighboring Andromeda Galaxy contains an estimated one trillion (1012) stars.[45] Filling the space between the stars is a disk of gas and dust called the interstellar medium. This disk has at least a comparable extent in radius to the stars,[46] whereas the thickness of the gas layer ranges from hundreds of light years for the colder gas to thousands of light years for warmer gas.[47][48] Both gravitational microlensing and planetary transit observations indicate that there may be at least as many planets bound to stars as there are stars in the Milky Way[23][49] and microlensing measurements indicate that there are more rogue planets not bound to host stars than there are stars.[50][51] The Milky Way Galaxy contains at least one planet per star, resulting in 100–400 billion planets, according to a January 2013 study of the five-planet star system Kepler-32 with the Kepler space observatory.[24] A different January 2013 analysis of Kepler data estimated that at least 17 billion Earth-sized exoplanets reside in the Milky Way Galaxy.[52] On November 4, 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler space mission data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarfs within the Milky Way Galaxy.[53][54][55] 11 billion of these estimated planets may be orbiting sun-like stars.[56] The nearest such planet may be 12 light-years away, according to the scientists.[53][54] Such Earth-sized planets may be more numerous than gas giants.[23] Besides exoplanets, "exocomets", comets beyond the Solar System, have also been detected and may be common in the Milky Way Galaxy.[52]

The disk of stars in the Milky Way does not have a sharp edge beyond which there are no stars. Rather, the concentration of stars decreases with distance from the center of the Milky Way. For reasons that are not understood, beyond a radius of roughly 40,000 ly (13 kpc) from the center, the number of stars per cubic parsec drops much faster with radius.[57] Surrounding the Galactic disk is a spherical Galactic Halo of stars and globular clusters that extends further outward, but is limited in size by the orbits of two Milky Way satellites, the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds, whose closest approach to the Galactic Center is about 180,000 ly (55 kpc).[58] At this distance or beyond, the orbits of most halo objects would be disrupted by the Magellanic Clouds. Hence, such objects would probably be ejected from the vicinity of the Milky Way. The integrated absolute visual magnitude of the Milky Way is estimated to be −20.9.

The Milky Way consists of a bar-shaped core region surrounded by a disk of gas, dust and stars. The gas, dust and stars are organized in roughly logarithmic spiral arm structures (see Spiral arms below). The mass distribution within the Milky Way closely resembles the type SBc in the Hubble classification, which represents spiral galaxies with relatively loosely wound arms.[1] Astronomers first began to suspect that the Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy, rather than an ordinary spiral galaxy, in the 1990s.[61] Their suspicions were confirmed by the Spitzer Space Telescope observations in 2005[62] that showed the Milky Way’s central bar to be larger than previously suspected.

Galactic quadrants
Main article: Galactic quadrant
A galactic quadrant, or quadrant of the galaxy, refers to one of four circular sectors in the division of the Milky Way. In actual astronomical practice, the delineation of the galactic quadrants is based upon the galactic coordinate system, which places the Sun as the pole of the mapping system.

Quadrants are described using ordinals—for example, "1st galactic quadrant",[63] "second galactic quadrant",[64] or "third quadrant of the Galaxy".[65] Viewing from the north galactic pole with 0 degrees (°) as the ray that runs starting from the Sun and through the Galactic Center, the quadrants are as follow:

1st galactic quadrant – 0° ≤ longitude (ℓ) ≤ 90°[66] 2nd galactic quadrant – 90° ≤ ℓ ≤ 180°[64] 3rd galactic quadrant – 180° ≤ ℓ ≤ 270°[65] 4th galactic quadrant – 270° ≤ ℓ ≤ 360° (0°)[63] The Sun is 26,000–28,000 ly (8.0–8.6 kpc) from the Galactic Center. This value is estimated using geometric-based methods or by measuring selected astronomical objects that serve as standard candles, with different techniques yielding various values within this approximate range.[10][67][68][69][70] In the inner few kpc (around 10,000 light-years radius) is a dense concentration of mostly old stars in a roughly spheroidal shape called the bulge.[71] It has been proposed that the Milky Way lacks a bulge formed due to a collision and merger between previous galaxies and that instead has a pseudobulge formed by its central bar.[72]

The Galactic Center is marked by an intense radio source named Sagittarius A*. The motion of material around the center indicates that Sagittarius A* harbors a massive, compact object.[73] This concentration of mass is best explained as a supermassive black hole[nb 4][10][67] with an estimated mass of 4.1–4.5 million times the mass of the Sun.[67] Observations indicate that there are supermassive black holes located near the center of most normal galaxies.[74][75]

The nature of the Milky Way’s bar is actively debated, with estimates for its half-length and orientation spanning from 1–5 kpc (3,000–16,000 ly) and 10–50 degrees relative to the line of sight from Earth to the Galactic Center.[69][70][76] Certain authors advocate that the Milky Way features two distinct bars, one nestled within the other.[77] In most galaxies, Wang et al. report, the rate of accretion of the supermassive black hole is slow, but the Milky Way seems to be an important exception. X-ray emission is aligned with the massive stars surrounding the central bar.[78] However, RR Lyr variables do not trace a prominent Galactic bar.[70][79][80] The bar may be surrounded by a ring called the "5-kpc ring" that contains a large fraction of the molecular hydrogen present in the Milky Way, as well as most of the Milky Way’s star-formation activity. Viewed from the Andromeda Galaxy, it would be the brightest feature of the Milky Way.[81]

In 2010, two gigantic spherical bubbles of high energy emission were detected to the north and the south of the Milky Way core, using data of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The diameter of each of the bubbles is about 25,000 light-years (7.7 kpc); they stretch up to Grus and to Virgo on the night-sky of the southern hemisphere.[82][83] Subsequently, observations with the Parkes Telescope at radio frequencies identified polarized emission that is associated with the Fermi bubbles. These observations are best interpreted as a magnetized outflow driven by star formation in the central 640 ly (200 pc) of the Milky Way.[84]

Spiral arms
Outside the gravitational influence of the Galactic bars, astronomers generally organize the structure of the interstellar medium and stars in the disk of the Milky Way into four spiral arms.[85] Spiral arms typically contain a higher density of interstellar gas and dust than the Galactic average as well as a greater concentration of star formation, as traced by H II regions[86][87] and molecular clouds.[88]

Maps of the Milky Way’s spiral structure are notoriously uncertain and exhibit striking differences.[60][85][87][89][90][91][92][93] Some 150 years after Alexander (1852)[94] first suggested that the Milky Way was a spiral, there is currently no consensus on the nature of the Milky Way’s spiral arms. Perfect logarithmic spiral patterns only crudely describe features near the Sun,[87][92] because galaxies commonly have arms that branch, merge, twist unexpectedly, and feature a degree of irregularity.[70][92][93] The possible scenario of the Sun within a spur / Local arm[87] emphasizes that point and indicates that such features are probably not unique, and exist elsewhere in the Milky Way.[92]

As in most spiral galaxies, each spiral arm can be described as a logarithmic spiral. Estimates of the pitch angle of the arms range from about 7° to 25°.[95][96] There are thought to be four spiral arms that all start near the Milky Way’s center. These are named as follows, with the positions of the arms shown in the image at right:
Two spiral arms, the Scutum–Centaurus arm and the Carina–Sagittarius arm, have tangent points inside the Sun’s orbit about the center of the Milky Way. If these arms contain an overdensity of stars compared to the average density of stars in the Galactic disk, it would be detectable by counting the stars near the tangent point. Two surveys of near-infrared light, which is sensitive primarily to red giants and not affected by dust extinction, detected the predicted overabundance in the Scutum–Centaurus arm but not in the Carina–Sagittarius arm: the Scutum-Centaurus Arm contains approximately 30% more red giants than would be expected in the absence of a spiral arm.[95][98] In 2008, Robert Benjamin of the University of Wisconsin–Whitewater used this observation to suggest that the Milky Way possesses only two major stellar arms: the Perseus arm and the Scutum–Centaurus arm. The rest of the arms contain excess gas but not excess old stars.[60] In December 2013, astronomers found that the distribution of young stars and star-forming regions matches the four-arm spiral description of the Milky Way.[99][100][101] Thus, the Milky Way appears to have two spiral arms as traced by old stars and four spiral arms as traced by gas and young stars. The explanation for this apparent discrepancy is unclear.[101]

The Near 3 kpc Arm (also called Expanding 3 kpc Arm or simply 3 kpc Arm) was discovered in the 1950s by astronomer van Woerden and collaborators through 21-centimeter radio measurements of HI (atomic hydrogen).[102][103] It was found to be expanding away from the center of the Milky Way at more than 50 km/s. It is located in the fourth galactic quadrant at a distance of about 5.2 kpc from the Sun and 3.3 kpc from the Galactic Center. The Far 3 kpc Arm was discovered in 2008 by astronomer Tom Dame (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA). It’s located in the first galactic quadrant at a distance of 3 kpc (about 10,000 ly) from the Galactic Center.[103][104]

A simulation published in 2011 suggested that the Milky Way may have obtained its spiral arm structure as a result of repeated collisions with the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy.[105]

It has been suggested that the Milky Way contains two different spiral patterns: an inner one, formed by the Sagittarius arm, that rotates fast and an outer one, formed by the Carina and Perseus arms, whose rotation velocity is slower and whose arms are tightly wound. In this scenario, suggested by numerical simulations of the dynamics of the different spiral arms, the outer pattern would form an outer pseudoring[106] and the two patterns would be connected by the Cygnus arm.[107]

Outside of the major spiral arms is the Monoceros Ring (or Outer Ring), a ring of gas and stars torn from other galaxies billions of years ago. However, several members of the scientific community recently restated their position affirming the Monoceros structure is nothing more than an over-density produced by the flared and warped thick disk of the Milky Way.[108]

Halo
The Galactic disk is surrounded by a spheroidal halo of old stars and globular clusters, of which 90% lie within 100,000 light-years (30 kpc) of the Galactic Center.[109] However, a few globular clusters have been found farther, such as PAL 4 and AM1 at more than 200,000 light-years away from the Galactic Center. About 40% of the Milky Way’s clusters are on retrograde orbits, which means they move in the opposite direction from the Milky Way rotation.[110] The globular clusters can follow rosette orbits about the Milky Way, in contrast to the elliptical orbit of a planet around a star.[111]

Although the disk contains dust that obscures the view in some wavelengths, the halo component does not. Active star formation takes place in the disk (especially in the spiral arms, which represent areas of high density), but does not take place in the halo, as there is little gas cool enough to collapse into stars.[11] Open clusters are also located primarily in the disk.[112]

Discoveries in the early 21st century have added dimension to the knowledge of the Milky Way’s structure. With the discovery that the disk of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) extends much further than previously thought,[113] the possibility of the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy extending further is apparent, and this is supported by evidence from the discovery of the Outer Arm extension of the Cygnus Arm[97][114] and of a similar extension of the Scutum-Centaurus Arm.[115] With the discovery of the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy came the discovery of a ribbon of galactic debris as the polar orbit of the dwarf and its interaction with the Milky Way tears it apart. Similarly, with the discovery of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy, it was found that a ring of galactic debris from its interaction with the Milky Way encircles the Galactic disk.

On January 9, 2006, Mario Jurić and others of Princeton University announced that the Sloan Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky found a huge and diffuse structure (spread out across an area around 5,000 times the size of a full moon) within the Milky Way that does not seem to fit within current models. The collection of stars rises close to perpendicular to the plane of the spiral arms of the Milky Way. The proposed likely interpretation is that a dwarf galaxy is merging with the Milky Way. This galaxy is tentatively named the Virgo Stellar Stream and is found in the direction of Virgo about 30,000 light-years (9 kpc) away.[116]

Gaseous halo
In addition to the stellar halo, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku have provided evidence that there is a gaseous halo with a large amount of hot gas. The halo extends for hundreds of thousand of light years, much further than the stellar halo and close to the distance of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The mass of this hot halo is nearly equivalent to the mass of the Milky Way itself.[117][118][119] The temperature of this halo gas is between 1 million and 2.5 million kelvin, a few hundred times hotter than the surface of the sun.[120]

Observations of distant galaxies indicate that the Universe had about one-sixth as much baryonic (ordinary) matter as dark matter when it was just a few billion years old. However, only about half of those baryons are accounted for in the modern Universe based on observations of nearby galaxies like the Milky Way.[121] If the finding that the mass of the halo is comparable to the mass of the Milky Way is confirmed, it could be the identity of the missing baryons around the Milky Way.

The Sun is near the inner rim of the Orion Arm, within the Local Fluff of the Local Bubble, and in the Gould Belt, at a distance of 8.33 ± 0.35 kiloparsecs (27,200 ± 1,100 ly) from the Galactic Center.[10][67][122] The Sun is currently 5–30 parsecs (16–98 ly) from the central plane of the Galactic disk.[123] The distance between the local arm and the next arm out, the Perseus Arm, is about 2,000 parsecs (6,500 ly).[124] The Sun, and thus the Solar System, is found in the Galactic habitable zone.

There are about 208 stars brighter than absolute magnitude 8.5 within a sphere with a radius of 15 parsecs (49 ly) from the Sun, giving a density of one star per 69 cubic parsec, or one star per 2,360 cubic light-year (from List of nearest bright stars). On the other hand, there are 64 known stars (of any magnitude, not counting 4 brown dwarfs) within 5 parsecs (16 ly) of the Sun, giving a density of about one star per 8.2 cubic parsec, or one per 284 cubic light-year (from List of nearest stars). This illustrates the fact that there are far more faint stars than bright stars: in the entire sky, there are about 500 stars brighter than apparent magnitude 4 but 15.5 million stars brighter than apparent magnitude 14.[125]

The apex of the Sun’s way, or the solar apex, is the direction that the Sun travels through space in the Milky Way. The general direction of the Sun’s Galactic motion is towards the star Vega near the constellation of Hercules, at an angle of roughly 60 sky degrees to the direction of the Galactic Center. The Sun’s orbit about the Milky Way is expected to be roughly elliptical with the addition of perturbations due to the Galactic spiral arms and non-uniform mass distributions. In addition, the Sun oscillates up and down relative to the Galactic plane approximately 2.7 times per orbit. This is very similar to how a simple harmonic oscillator works with no drag force (damping) term. These oscillations were until recently thought to coincide with mass lifeform extinction periods on Earth.[126] However, a reanalysis of the effects of the Sun’s transit through the spiral structure based on CO data has failed to find a correlation.[127]

It takes the Solar System about 240 million years to complete one orbit of the Milky Way (a Galactic year),[11] so the Sun is thought to have completed 18–20 orbits during its lifetime and 1/1250 of a revolution since the origin of humans. The orbital speed of the Solar System about the center of the Milky Way is approximately 220 km/s or 0.073% of the speed of light. At this speed, it takes around 1,400 years for the Solar System to travel a distance of 1 light-year, or 8 days to travel 1 AU (astronomical unit).

The stars and gas in the Milky Way rotate about its center differentially, meaning that the rotation period varies with location. As is typical for spiral galaxies, the orbital speed of most stars in the Milky Way does not depend strongly on their distance from the center. Away from the central bulge or outer rim, the typical stellar orbital speed is between 210 and 240 km/s.[131] Hence the orbital period of the typical star is directly proportional only to the length of the path traveled. This is unlike the situation within the Solar System, where two-body gravitational dynamics dominate and different orbits have significantly different velocities associated with them. The rotation curve (shown in the figure) describes this rotation. Toward the center of the Milky Way the orbit speeds are too low, whereas beyond 7 kpcs the speeds are too high to match what would be expected from the universal law of gravitation.

If the Milky Way contained only the mass observed in stars, gas, and other baryonic (ordinary) matter, the rotation speed would decrease with distance from the center. However, the observed curve is relatively flat, indicating that there is additional mass that cannot be detected directly with electromagnetic radiation. This inconsistency is attributed to dark matter.[25] The rotation curve of the Milky Way agrees with the universal rotation curve of spiral galaxies, the strongest proof of the existence of dark matter in galaxies. Alternatively, a minority of astronomers propose that a modification of the law of gravity may explain the observed rotation curve.
The Milky Way began as one or several small overdensities in the mass distribution in the Universe shortly after the Big Bang. Some of these overdensities were the seeds of globular clusters in which the oldest remaining stars in what is now the Milky Way formed. These stars and clusters now comprise the stellar halo of the Milky Way. Within a few billion years of the birth of the first stars, the mass of the Milky Way was large enough so that it was spinning relatively quickly. Due to conservation of angular momentum, this led the gaseous interstellar medium to collapse from a roughly spheroidal shape to a disk. Therefore, later generations of stars formed in this spiral disk. Most younger stars, including the Sun, are observed to be in the disk.[133][134]

Since the first stars began to form, the Milky Way has grown through both galaxy mergers (particularly early in the Milky Way’s growth) and accretion of gas directly from the Galactic halo.[134] The Milky Way is currently accreting material from two of its nearest satellite galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, through the Magellanic Stream. Direct accretion of gas is observed in high-velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud.[135][136] However, properties of the Milky Way such as stellar mass, angular momentum, and metallicity in its outermost regions suggest it has undergone no mergers with large galaxies in the last 10 billion years. This lack of recent major mergers is unusual among similar spiral galaxies; its neighbour the Andromeda Galaxy appears to have a more typical history shaped by more recent mergers with relatively large galaxies.[137][138]

According to recent studies, the Milky Way as well as Andromeda lie in what in the galaxy color–magnitude diagram is known as the green valley, a region populated by galaxies in transition from the blue cloud (galaxies actively forming new stars) to the red sequence (galaxies that lack star formation). Star-formation activity in green valley galaxies is slowing as they run out of star-forming gas in the interstellar medium. In simulated galaxies with similar properties, star formation will typically have been extinguished within about five billion years from now, even accounting for the expected, short-term increase in the rate of star formation due to the collision between both the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy.[139] In fact, measurements of other galaxies similar to the Milky Way suggest it is among the reddest and brightest spiral galaxies that are still forming new stars and it is just slightly bluer than the bluest red sequence galaxies.[140]

Age[edit] The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium-232 and uranium-238, then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology. These yield values of about 12.5 ± 3 billion years for CS 31082-001[141] and 13.8 ± 4 billion years for BD +17° 3248.[142] Once a white dwarf is formed, it begins to undergo radiative cooling and the surface temperature steadily drops. By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made. With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as 12.7 ± 0.7 billion years. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way. Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of 12.6 billion years, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 16 billion years.[143]

In 2007, a star in the galactic halo, HE 1523-0901, was estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, ≈0.5 billion years less than the age of the universe. As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.[144] This estimate was determined using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope to measure the relative strengths of spectral lines caused by the presence of thorium and other elements created by the R-process. The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes, from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.[144]

The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology. Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8.8 ± 1.7 billion years ago. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster. The Virgo Supercluster forms part of a greater structure, called Laniakea.[146]

Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 14,000 light-years. It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Stream is a stream of neutral hydrogen gas extending from these two small galaxies across 100° of the sky. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way.[147] Some of the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are Canis Major Dwarf (the closest), Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, and Leo I Dwarf. The smallest Milky Way dwarf galaxies are only 500 light-years in diameter. These include Carina Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, and Leo II Dwarf. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies that are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, as well as some that have already been absorbed by the Milky Way, such as Omega Centauri.

In January 2006, researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they orbit the Milky Way, causing vibrations when they pass through its edges. Previously, these two galaxies, at around 2% of the mass of the Milky Way, were considered too small to influence the Milky Way. However, in a computer model, the movement of these two galaxies creates a dark matter wake that amplifies their influence on the larger Milky Way.[148]

Current measurements suggest the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching us at 100 to 140 kilometers per second. In 3 to 4 billion years, there may be an Andromeda–Milky Way collision, depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies’ relative motion. If they collide, the chance of individual stars colliding with each other is extremely low, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy or perhaps a large disk galaxy[149] over the course of about a billion years.[150]

Velocity
Although special relativity states that there is no "preferred" inertial frame of reference in space with which to compare the Milky Way, the Milky Way does have a velocity with respect to cosmological frames of reference.

One such frame of reference is the Hubble flow, the apparent motions of galaxy clusters due to the expansion of space. Individual galaxies, including the Milky Way, have peculiar velocities relative to the average flow. Thus, to compare the Milky Way to the Hubble flow, one must consider a volume large enough so that the expansion of the Universe dominates over local, random motions. A large enough volume means that the mean motion of galaxies within this volume is equal to the Hubble flow. Astronomers believe the Milky Way is moving at approximately 630 km per second with respect to this local co-moving frame of reference.[151] The Milky Way is moving in the general direction of the Great Attractor and other galaxy clusters, including the Shapley supercluster, behind it.[152] The Local Group (a cluster of gravitationally bound galaxies containing, among others, the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy) is part of a supercluster called the Local Supercluster, centered near the Virgo Cluster: although they are moving away from each other at 967 km/s as part of the Hubble flow, this velocity is less than would be expected given the 16.8 million pc distance due to the gravitational attraction between the Local Group and the Virgo Cluster.[153]

Another reference frame is provided by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The Milky Way is moving at 552 ± 6 km/s[13] with respect to the photons of the CMB, toward 10.5 right ascension, −24° declination (J2000 epoch, near the center of Hydra). This motion is observed by satellites such as the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) as a dipole contribution to the CMB, as photons in equilibrium in the CMB frame get blue-shifted in the direction of the motion and red-shifted in the opposite direction.[13]

Etymology and mythology
Main articles: List of names for the Milky Way and Milky Way (mythology)
In western culture the name "Milky Way" is derived from its appearance as a dim un-resolved "milky" glowing band arching across the night sky. The term is a translation of the Classical Latin via lactea, in turn derived from the Hellenistic Greek γαλαξίας, short for γαλαξίας κύκλος (pr. galaktikos kyklos, "milky circle"). The Ancient Greek γαλαξίας (galaxias), from root γαλακτ-, γάλα (milk) + -ίας (forming adjectives), is also the root of "galaxy", the name for our, and later all such, collections of stars.[18][154][155][156] The Milky Way "milk circle" was just one of 11 circles the Greeks identified in the sky, others being the zodiac, the meridian, the horizon, the equator, the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic circles, and two colure circles passing through both poles.

In Meteorologica (DK 59 A80), Aristotle (384–322 BC) wrote that the Greek philosophers Anaxagoras (ca. 500–428 BC) and Democritus (460–370 BC) proposed that the Milky Way might consist of distant stars. However, Aristotle himself believed the Milky Way to be caused by "the ignition of the fiery exhalation of some stars which were large, numerous and close together" and that the "ignition takes place in the upper part of the atmosphere, in the region of the world which is continuous with the heavenly motions."[158] The Neoplatonist philosopher Olympiodorus the Younger (c. 495–570 A.D.) criticized this view, arguing that if the Milky Way were sublunary it should appear different at different times and places on Earth, and that it should have parallax, which it does not. In his view, the Milky Way was celestial. This idea would be influential later in the Islamic world.[159]

The Persian astronomer Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973–1048) proposed that the Milky Way is "a collection of countless fragments of the nature of nebulous stars".[160] The Andalusian astronomer Avempace (d. 1138) proposed the Milky Way to be made up of many stars but appears to be a continuous image due to the effect of refraction in the Earth’s atmosphere, citing his observation of a conjunction of Jupiter and Mars in 1106 or 1107 as evidence.[158] Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350) proposed that the Milky Way is "a myriad of tiny stars packed together in the sphere of the fixed stars" and that these stars are larger than planets.[161]

According to Jamil Ragep, the Persian astronomer Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (1201–1274) in his Tadhkira writes: "The Milky Way, i.e. the Galaxy, is made up of a very large number of small, tightly clustered stars, which, on account of their concentration and smallness, seem to be cloudy patches. Because of this, it was likened to milk in color."[162]

Actual proof of the Milky Way consisting of many stars came in 1610 when Galileo Galilei used a telescope to study the Milky Way and discovered that it was composed of a huge number of faint stars.[163][164] In a treatise in 1755, Immanuel Kant, drawing on earlier work by Thomas Wright,[165] speculated (correctly) that the Milky Way might be a rotating body of a huge number of stars, held together by gravitational forces akin to the Solar System but on much larger scales.[166] The resulting disk of stars would be seen as a band on the sky from our perspective inside the disk. Kant also conjectured that some of the nebulae visible in the night sky might be separate "galaxies" themselves, similar to our own. Kant referred to both the Milky Way and the "extragalactic nebulae" as "island universes", a term still current up to the 1930s.[167][168][169]

The first attempt to describe the shape of the Milky Way and the position of the Sun within it was carried out by William Herschel in 1785 by carefully counting the number of stars in different regions of the visible sky. He produced a diagram of the shape of the Milky Way with the Solar System close to the center.[170]

In 1845, Lord Rosse construct

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