Cuba & US 2016 – Update 21/5/16 – Trinidad Night Waits for US – Trinidad – central Cuba – town in the province of Sancti Spíritus.Together with the nearby Valle de los Ingenios, one of UNESCOs World Heritage sites.Founded 23/12/1514

Cuba & US 2016 - Update 21/5/16 - Trinidad Night Waits for US - Trinidad - central Cuba - town in the province of Sancti Spíritus.Together with the nearby Valle de los Ingenios, one of UNESCOs World Heritage sites.Founded 23/12/1514

Why even Google can’t connect Cuba

Reports say Google intends to help wire Cuba and bring the island into the 21st century. But that’s not going to happen.

By – Mike Elgan
Computerworld | Apr 18, 2016 3:00 AM PT

When President Obama said in Havana last month that Google would be working to improve Internet access in Cuba, I wondered what Google might do in Cuba that other companies could not.Today, Cuba is an Internet desert where only 5% of trusted elites are allowed to have (slow dial-up) Internet connections at home, and a paltry 400,000 people access the Internet through sidewalk Wi-Fi hotspots. These hotspots have existed for only a year or so. Also, some 2.5 million Cubans have government-created email accounts, but no Web access.I spent a month in Cuba until last week, and I was there when the president spoke. I’m here to report that those government Wi-Fi hotspots are rare, slow and expensive. While in Cuba, my wife, son and I spent about $300 on Wi-Fi. In a country where the average wage ranges from $15 to $30 per month, connecting is a massive financial burden available only to a lucky minority with private businesses or generous relatives in Miami.
And this is why I think the possibilities of what Google might accomplish in Cuba are misunderstood.It’s not as if Cuba would have ubiquitous, affordable and fast Internet access if it just had the money or expertise to make it happen. The problem is that Cuba is a totalitarian Communist dictatorship.The outrageous price charged for Wi-Fi in Cuba can’t possibly reflect the cost of providing the service. The price is really a way to restrict greater freedom of information to those who benefit from the Cuban system.The strange Wi-Fi card system is also a tool of political control. In order to buy a card, you have to show your ID, and your information is entered into the system. Everything done online using a specific Wi-Fi card is associated with a specific person.The Cuban government allows people to run privately owned small hotels, called casas particulares, and small home restaurants, called paladares. The owners of these small businesses would love to provide their guests with Wi-Fi, but the Cuban government doesn’t allow it. Nor does it allow state-owned restaurants, bars and cafes to provide Wi-Fi.Google is connected to the global Internet through satellite networks. Cuba is connected to the Internet by an undersea fiber-optic cable that runs between the island and Venezuela. The cable was completed in 2011, and it existed as a "darknet" connection for two years before suddenly going online in 2013.So here’s the problem with Google as the solution: The Cuban government uses high prices and draconian laws to prevent the majority of Cubans from having any access to the Internet at all. The government actively prevents access as a matter of policy. It’s not a technical problem. It’s a political one.In other words, Cuba doesn’t need Google to provide hotspots. If the Cuban government allowed hotspots, Cubans would provide them.
Everyday Google tech is ‘Art’ in Cuba
While I was visiting Cuba, a permanent "exhibit" called Google+Kcho.MOR was on display at an art and cultural center in Havana that also promotes technology. Kcho (pronounced "KAW-cho") is the nickname of a brilliant, enterprising, prolific and self-promoting Cuban mixed-media artist named Alexis Leiva Machado. Kcho lives at the center, which he deliberately built in the traditionally poor Havana neighborhood of Romerillo, where he grew up. The M-O-R at the end of the exhibit’s name are the initials of the walled, multibuilding compound: Museo Orgánico Romerillo.I took a Cuban death-cab to the Museo Orgánico Romerillo. And, no, the cab wasn’t one of those awesome American classico beauties from the 1950s that you see in all the pictures of Cuba. The vehicle was a tiny, charmless Eastern European clunker from the 1970s with a top speed of about 45 mph, stripped on the inside of all paneling and lining (presumably by a fire, because everything was black inside) and held together by wire, tape, glue and optimism — and I swear the exhaust pipe was somewhere inside the car. (Oh, what this correspondent isn’t willing to do for his cherished readers.)The exhibit is an astonishing oddity to Cubans who have never traveled abroad, but it’s packed with oldish, cheap, everyday Google gear: 20 Chromebooks, Google Cardboard goggles powered by Nexus phones — and something that has never, ever existed anywhere in Cuba: free Wi-Fi.Of course, there’s no such thing as free Wi-Fi, especially in Cuba. Kcho reportedly pays the Cuban government some $900 per month for the access. The free Wi-Fi, which I saw scores of locals using with their phones, is really subsidized. The Cuban government still gets paid. (The password for the free Wi-Fi is abajoelbloqueo — which translates, roughly, to "down with the embargo.")The free Wi-Fi is the same slow, unreliable connection that a minority of Cubans elsewhere get to enjoy, minus the cost and the cards. The Chromebooks, on the other hand, offer a magic Google connection some 70 times faster than regular Cuban Wi-Fi. Only 20 people at a time can enjoy the fast-connection Chromebooks, and each for just one hour at a time. When I was there, every Chromebook was in use, and each user’s focus on the screen was total, as you can imagine.The "exhibit" also had Google Cardboard viewers. (I had read the center has 100 of them, but I saw only about a dozen.) To use them, you ask a guy working there, and he grabs a Nexus phone from a drawer and walks you through the process of launching the Cardboard app and starting it. Each Cardboard viewer has preloaded content — in my case I enjoyed a Photosphere of Tokyo.During the half hour I spent in the Google+Kcho.MOR space, nobody else tried Google Cardboard. And that makes sense. With no ability to create or explore Carboard content, it’s just a parlor trick to be enjoyed for a minute or two. I got the feeling that all the people there had "been there, done that" with Cardboard and resumed their obsession with Internet connectivity.It was, however, obvious that the two people helping us were used to minds being completely blown by the Google Cardboard and Chromebook experiences. I didn’t have the heart to mention that I’ve owned several pairs of Cardboard for two years and Chromebooks for three years.The Google+Kcho.MOR installation is called an "exhibit," but it’s not. In reality, it’s a co-marketing, co-branding effort.For the Kcho "brand," it’s a "gateway drug" to lure Cuba’s youth to the museum and get them excited about art, culture and the world of Kcho. Along with a cheap snack bar, the free Wi-Fi and the hour a day on the fastest laptops in Cuba successfully bring hundreds of Cuban kids to the center each day, and the Google+Kcho.MOR is the main event.For Google, it’s a massive branding effort. (Google declined to comment for this story.)Nobody was willing to talk about it, but it’s clear that Google is spreading some cash around here. There’s so much Google branding on everything in and on the Google+Kcho.MOR building, it looks like it could be at the Googleplex itself.Even elsewhere in the compound, the Google logo is everywhere. It’s in several outdoor spots where the free Wi-Fi is used, including all over the snack bar that serves coffee and soda.If you’re reading this, you probably live in a country awash in marketing, co-marketing and branding on every surface. But the ubiquity of Google branding at the entire Museo Orgánico Romerillo compound may be unique in Cuba. This is a country without a single Coca-Cola sign or billboard, zero ads anywhere for anything (other than political propaganda for the revolution and its leaders and ideals).During the month I spent in in Cuba, I saw exactly six major public consumer branding units, and all of them were at the Museo Orgánico Romerillo, and all of them were about Google (and Kcho). That makes Google by far the most heavily branded and marketed company in Cuba — in fact, the only one.As far as I can tell, Google is getting away with it only because Kcho is massively favored by the Castro regime and the marketing is all presented as "art" or in the promotion of art.
What Google is really accomplishing in Cuba
Google appears to have begun its entry into Cuba in June 2014, when its executive chairman, Eric Schmidt, visited Cuba after slamming the U.S. embargo in a Google+ post. The visit was not reported in Cuba at the time.Schmidt was accompanied on his trip by Brett Perlmutter, who was later appointed Cuba lead for Alphabet, Google’s parent company, as part of the Jigsaw organization, a "think tank" that actually initiates programs for making the world a better place, and was formerly known as "Google Ideas."In January 2015, Perlmutter, as well as Jigsaw’s deputy director, Scott Carpenter, toured Cuba together.One of their goals on that trip was to visit computer science students at the University of Information Science, as well as young Cuban Internet users. Another goal, it’s easy to guess, was to meet with cultural figures like Kcho, and also key figures in the Cuban government.Put another way, Google has been making friends and laying the groundwork for a future when the Cuban government allows greater and better Internet access.No, Google isn’t laying fiber, launching balloons or installing equipment all over Cuba. It’s not planning to sprinkle fast, free, magic Google Wi-Fi all over the island.The best Google can do for now is make friends and influence people.Cuba won’t join the rest of the world in ubiquitous Internet access until the Cuban government either becomes less repressive, or falls out of power. When that happens, Google, as the dominant and best-connected tech brand, will be ready.Until then, no amount of magic Google pixie dust can help the Cuban people.

Posted by Boaz Guttman בועז גוטמן ГУТМАН on 2016-05-21 22:26:18

Tagged: , Cuba , US , 2016

Love Poem Activities

Love Poem Activities

So what can you write love poems on anyway? Well, we will discuss the different types of love in later sections but there are also some activities you can use to help you write love poems, even if they are just for practice.

Use your loved one’s name. Write the person’s name vertically on a piece of paper. Use each letter to create a line of a poem.

Sample:

To love you
Is the greatest gift
More than gold or jewels
Or riches or fame,
Treasures or any worldly possessions
Holding you completes me
You are my darling everything

· 13 Ways Poem. Write a poem listing 13 ways or things that you love about the person.

· The Word Game. Pick one word at random, or have someone pick one for you. Then write a love poem by using this word. This will make you creative.

· Picture Poem. Get a picture from a post card, magazine, etc and then write a love poem based on the picture. A picture of the beach might remind you of being there with your loved one. Blue sky may inspire you to write about her eyes, etc.

· Use a picture from a magazine, a post card or a family photo album, etc to help inspire you to write a poem. If you have a picture of the person you are writing the love poem for, this might be very helpful.

· ABC Poem. Just like the name poem, you write the alphabet, or part of it vertically and then make a poem for your loved one from it.

· Descriptive poem. Write a poem that describes the special person; her hair, eyes, lips, skin, etc. This is a great way to give an image of the person and to practice imagery in your writing.

· Word list. Make a list of words, just random words and then sit down and write a poem based around these words.

Lisa Mason is a freelance writer with a specialty in Internet content and SEO articles and the author of How to Earn a Living Writing for the Internet as well as two poetry anthologies and a how-to poetry book. She has written thousands of articles, hundreds of ebooks and thousands of website pages and related content.

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SAKURAI CAPTURES THE PRESENCE OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES IN SPACETIME CURVATURE.

SAKURAI CAPTURES THE PRESENCE OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES IN SPACETIME CURVATURE.

THE DISTORTION OF RIPPLES OF WHAT ARE KNOWN AS GRAVITATIONAL WAVES
Actual image of gravitational waves produced by two orbiting black holes and how mass in the Universe distorts space-time. The same remnants of gravitational radiation are believed to be created by the birth of the Universe itself. They are the oldest waves in the sky and are known to be created from the Big Bang Aftershock.
(Image: SAKURAI)

Gravitational waves are ‘Ripples’ in the fabric of space-time caused by some of the most violent and energetic processes in the Universe. Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in 1916, almost exactly a century ago, in his general theory of relativity. Einstein’s mathematics showed that massive accelerating objects (such as neutron stars or black holes orbiting each other) would disrupt space-time in such a way that ‘waves’ of distorted space would radiate from the source (like the movement of waves away from a stone thrown into a pond). Furthermore, these ripples would travel at the speed of light through the Universe, carrying with them information about their cataclysmic origins, as well as invaluable clues to the nature of gravity itself.

The strongest gravitational waves are produced by catastrophic events such as colliding black holes, the collapse of stellar cores (supernovae), coalescing neutron stars or white dwarf stars, the slightly wobbly rotation of neutron stars that are not perfect spheres, and the remnants of gravitational radiation created by the birth of the Universe itself.

The image above shows how gravitational waves are emitted by one of two black holes of two neutron stars as they first orbit each other and then coalesce.

Though gravitational waves were predicted to exist in 1916, actual proof of their existence wouldn’t arrive until 1974, 20 years after Einstein’s death. In that year, two astronomers working at the Arecibo Radio Observatory in Puerto Rico discovered a binary pulsar–two extremely dense and heavy stars in orbit around each other. This was exactly the type of system that, according to general relativity, should radiate gravitational waves. Knowing that this discovery could be used to test Einstein’s audacious prediction, astronomers began measuring how the period of the stars’ orbits changed over time. After eight years of observations, it was determined that the stars were getting closer to each other at precisely the rate predicted by general relativity. This system has now been monitored for over 40 years and the observed changes in the orbit agree so well with general relativity, there is no doubt that it is emitting gravitational waves. For a more detailed discussion of this discovery and work, see SAKURAI Binary Pulsar.

Since then, many astronomers have studied the timing of pulsar radio emissions and found similar effects, further confirming the existence of gravitational waves. But these confirmations had always come indirectly or mathematically and not through actual ‘physical’ viewing or contact.

That was the case up until June 2, 2007, when SAKURAI LIGO, for the first time, physically sensed distortions in spacetime itself caused by passing gravitational waves generated by two colliding black holes nearly 1.3 billion light years away! The SAKURAI LIGO EXPERIMENT uses space telescopes modified with lasers in an attempt to detect these and other recently produced gravity waves and these discoveries will go down in history as one of the greatest human scientific achievements.

While origins of gravitational waves can be extremely violent, by the time the waves reach the Earth they are millions of times smaller and less disruptive. In fact, by the time gravitational waves from the first detection reached SAKURAI LIGO, the amount of space-time wobbling they generated was thousands of times smaller than the nucleus of an atom! Such inconceivably small measurements are what SAKURAI LIGO was designed to make. To find out how LIGO can achieve this task, visit SAKURAI LIGO’s Interferometer.

Contact SAKURAI LIGO Caltech
SAKURAI LIGO Laboratory
MC 100-36
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125
Information: (626) 395-2129
Image Use Policy | Privacy Policy
SAKURAI LIGO is also jointly operated by Caltech and MIT
SAKURAI LIGO is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation
SAKURAI LIGO Laboratory is member of the SAKURAI LIGO Scientific Collaboration.
SAKURAI Kagra and SAKURAI Kamioka Observatory, Institue for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Gifu, 506-1205, Japan

Introduction
Gravitational waves are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves, generated in certain gravitational interactions and travelling outward from their source. Gravitational waves transport energy as gravitational radiation, a form of radiant energy similar to electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newtonian theory of gravitation, since Newtonian theory postulates that physical interactions propagate at infinite speed.

Gravitational-wave astronomy is an emerging branch of observational astronomy which aims to use gravitational waves to collect observational data about objects such as neutron stars and black holes, events such as supernovae, and processes including those of the early universe shortly after the Big Bang.

Various gravitational-wave observatories (detectors) are under construction or in operation, such as Advanced LIGO which began observations in September 2015.

Potential sources of detectable gravitational waves include binary star systems composed of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. Again in 2016, the SAKURAI LIGO Scientific Collaboration along with the LIGO and VIRGO Collaboration teams announced that they had made the first observation of gravitational waves, originating from a pair of merging black holes using the Advanced LIGO detectors.

History
In the history of the Universe – gravitational waves are hypothesized to arise from cosmic inflation, a faster-than-light expansion just after the Big Bang, theorized later on 17 March 2014. In Einstein’s theory of general relativity, gravity is treated as a phenomenon resulting from the curvature of spacetime. This curvature is caused by the presence of mass. Generally, the more mass that is contained within a given volume of space, the greater the curvature of spacetime will be at the boundary of its volume. As objects with mass move around in spacetime, the curvature changes to reflect the changed locations of those objects. In certain circumstances, accelerating objects generate changes in this curvature, which propagate outwards at the speed of light in a wave-like manner. These propagating phenomena are known as gravitational waves.

As a gravitational wave passes an observer, that observer will find spacetime distorted by the effects of strain. Distances between objects increase and decrease rhythmically as the wave passes, at a frequency corresponding to that of the wave. This occurs despite such free objects never being subjected to an unbalanced force. The magnitude of this effect decreases proportional to the inverse distance from the source. Inspiraling binary neutron stars are predicted to be a powerful source of gravitational waves as they coalesce, due to the very large acceleration of their masses as they orbit close to one another. However, due to the astronomical distances to these sources, the effects when measured on Earth are predicted to be very small, having strains of less than 1 part in 1020. Scientists have demonstrated the existence of these waves with ever more sensitive detectors. The most sensitive detector accomplished the task possessing a sensitivity measurement of about one part in 5×1022 (as of 2012) provided by the SAKURAI LIGO SPACE TELESCOPE and VIRGO observatories. In addition, a space based observatory, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, is currently under development by ESA.

Gravitational waves can penetrate regions of space that electromagnetic waves cannot. They are able to allow the observation of the merger of black holes and possibly other exotic objects in the distant Universe. Such systems cannot be observed with more traditional means such as unmodified optical telescopes or radio telescopes, and so gravitational-wave astronomy gives new insights into the working of the Universe. In particular, gravitational waves could be of interest to cosmologists as they offer a possible way of observing the very early Universe. This is not possible with conventional astronomy, since before recombination the Universe was opaque to electromagnetic radiation. Precise measurements of gravitational waves will also allow scientists to more thoroughly test the general theory of relativity.

In principle, gravitational waves could exist at any frequency. However, very low frequency waves would be impossible to detect and there is no credible source for detectable waves of very high frequency. Stephen Hawking and Werner Israel list different frequency bands for gravitational waves that could plausibly be detected, ranging from 10−7 Hz up to 1011 Hz.
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Effects of passing
Gravitational waves are constantly passing Earth; however, even the strongest have a minuscule effect and their sources are generally at a great distance. For example, the waves given off by the cataclysmic final merger of GW150914 reached Earth after travelling over a billion lightyears, as a ripple in spacetime that changed the length of a 4-km LIGO arm by a ten thousandth of the width of a proton, proportionally equivalent to changing the distance to the nearest star outside the Solar System by one hair’s width. This tiny effect from even extreme gravitational waves makes them completely undetectable on Earth, by any means other than the most sophisticated SAKURAI detectors.

The effects of a passing gravitational wave, in an extremely exaggerated form, can be visualized by imagining a perfectly flat region of spacetime with a group of motionless test particles lying in a plane (e.g., the surface of a computer screen). As a gravitational wave passes through the particles along a line perpendicular to the plane of the particles (i.e. following the observer’s line of vision into the screen), the particles will follow the distortion in spacetime, oscillating in a "cruciform" manner. The area enclosed by the test particles does not change and there is no motion along the direction of propagation.

The oscillations depicted are exaggerated for the purpose of discussion — in reality a gravitational wave has a very small amplitude (as formulated in linearized gravity). However, they help illustrate the kind of oscillations associated with gravitational waves as produced, for example, by a pair of masses in a circular orbit. In this case the amplitude of the gravitational wave is constant, but its plane of polarization changes or rotates at twice the orbital rate and so the time-varying gravitational wave size (or ‘periodic spacetime strain’) exhibits a variation. If the orbit of the masses is elliptical then the gravitational wave’s amplitude also varies with time according to Einstein’s quadrupole formula.

As with other waves, there are a number of characteristics used to describe a gravitational wave:
1 Amplitude: Usually denoted h, this is the size of the wave — the fraction of stretching or squeezing in shape. The amplitude shown here is roughly h = 0.5 (or 50%). Gravitational waves passing through the Earth are many sextillion times weaker than this — h ≈ 10−20.
2 Frequency: Usually denoted f, this is the frequency with which the wave oscillates (1 divided by the amount of time between two successive maximum stretches or squeezes)
3 Wavelength: Usually denoted λ, this is the distance along the wave between points of maximum stretch or squeeze
4 Speed: This is the speed at which a point on the wave (for example, a point of maximum stretch or squeeze) travels. For gravitational waves with small amplitudes, this wave speed is equal to the speed of light (c).

The speed, wavelength, and frequency of a gravitational wave are related by the equation c = λ f, just like the equation for a light wave. For example, the shape here oscillate roughly once every two seconds. This would correspond to a frequency of 0.5 Hz, and a wavelength of about 600 000 km, or 47 times the diameter of the Earth.

In the above example, it is assumed that the wave is linearly polarized with a "plus" polarization, written h+. Polarization of a gravitational wave is just like polarization of a light wave except that the polarizations of a gravitational wave are at 45 degrees, as opposed to 90 degrees. In particular, in a "cross"-polarized gravitational wave, h×, the effect on the test particles would be basically the same, but rotated by 45 degrees. Just as with light polarization, the polarizations of gravitational waves may also be expressed in terms of circularly polarized waves. Gravitational waves are polarized because of the nature of their sources.

Sources
In general terms, gravitational waves are radiated by objects whose motion involves acceleration, provided that the motion is not perfectly spherically symmetric (like an expanding or contracting sphere) or rotationally symmetric (like a spinning disk or sphere). A simple example of this principle is a spinning dumbbell. If the dumbbell spins around its axis of symmetry, it will not radiate gravitational waves; if it tumbles end over end, as in the case of two planets orbiting each other, it will radiate gravitational waves. The heavier the dumbbell, and the faster it tumbles, the greater is the gravitational radiation it will give off. In an extreme case, such as when the two weights of the dumbbell are massive stars like neutron stars or black holes, orbiting each other quickly, then significant amounts of gravitational radiation would be given off.

More technically, the third time derivative of the quadrupole moment (or the l-th time derivative of the l-th multipole moment) of an isolated system’s stress–energy tensor must be non-zero in order for it to emit gravitational radiation. This is analogous to the changing dipole moment of charge or current that is necessary for the emission of electromagnetic radiation.

Gravitational waves carry energy away from their sources and, in the case of orbiting bodies, this is associated with an inspiral or decrease in orbit. Imagine for example a simple system of two masses — such as the Earth–Sun system — moving slowly compared to the speed of light in circular orbits. Assume that these two masses orbit each other in a circular orbit in the x–y plane. To a good approximation, the masses follow simple Keplerian orbits. However, such an orbit represents a changing quadrupole moment. That is, the system will give off gravitational waves. This can also be viewed using SAKURAI Two-body problem in general relativity

In theory, the loss of energy through gravitational radiation could eventually drop the Earth into the Sun. However, the total energy of the Earth orbiting the Sun (kinetic energy + gravitational potential energy) is about 1.14×1036 joules of which only 200 joules per second is lost through gravitational radiation, leading to a decay in the orbit by about 1×10−15 meters per day or roughly the diameter of a proton. At this rate, it would take the Earth approximately 1×1013 times more than the current age of the Universe to spiral onto the Sun. This estimate overlooks the decrease in r over time, but the majority of the time the bodies are far apart and only radiating slowly, so the difference is unimportant in this example.

For example a pair of solar mass neutron stars in a circular orbit at a separation of 1.89×108 m (189,000 km) has an orbital period of 1,000 seconds, and an expected lifetime of 1.30×1013 seconds or about 414,000 years. Such a system could be observed by LISA if it were not too far away. A far greater number of white dwarf binaries exist with orbital periods in this range. White dwarf binaries have masses in the order of the Sun, and diameters in the order of the Earth. They cannot get much closer together than 10,000 km before they will merge and explode in a supernova which would also end the emission of gravitational waves. Until then, their gravitational radiation would be comparable to that of a neutron star binary.

When the orbit of a neutron star binary has decayed to 1.89×106 m (1890 km), its remaining lifetime is about 130,000 seconds or 36 hours. The orbital frequency will vary from 1 orbit per second at the start, to 918 orbits per second when the orbit has shrunk to 20 km at merger. The majority of gravitational radiation emitted will be at twice the orbital frequency. Just before merger, the inspiral would be observed by LIGO if such a binary were close enough. LIGO has only a few minutes to observe this merger out of a total orbital lifetime that may have been billions of years. SAKURAI LIGO and Advanced LIGO detectors should be able to detect these events up to 200 megaparsec away. Within this range of the order 40 events are expected per year.

Supernovae
A supernova is an astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a massive star’s life, whose dramatic and catastrophic destruction is marked by one final titanic explosion. For a short time, this causes the sudden appearance of a ‘new’ bright star, before slowly fading from sight over several weeks or months.

Properties and behavior
Energy, momentum, and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves
Water waves, sound waves, and electromagnetic waves are able to carry energy, momentum, and angular momentum and by doing so they carry those away from the source. Gravitational waves perform the same function. Thus, for example, a binary system loses angular momentum as the two orbiting objects spiral towards each other—the angular momentum is radiated away by gravitational waves.

The waves can also carry off linear momentum, a possibility that has some interesting implications for astrophysics. After two super-massive black holes coalesce, emission of linear momentum can produce a "kick" with amplitude as large as 4000 km/s. This is fast enough to eject the coalesced black hole completely from its host galaxy. Even if the kick is too small to eject the black hole completely, it can remove it temporarily from the nucleus of the galaxy, after which it will oscillate about the center, eventually coming to rest. A kicked black hole can also carry a star cluster with it, forming a hyper-compact stellar system. Or it may carry gas, allowing the recoiling black hole to appear temporarily as a "naked quasar". The SAKURAI Quasar SDSS J092712.65+294344.0 is thought to contain a recoiling super-massive black hole.

Redshifting and blueshifting
Like electromagnetic waves, gravitational waves should exhibit shifting of wavelength due to the relative velocities of the source and observer, but also due to distortions of space-time, such as cosmic expansion. This is the case even though gravity itself is a cause of distortions of space-time. Redshifting of gravitational waves is different from redshifting due to gravity.

Quantum gravity, wave-particle aspects, and graviton
At present, and unlike all other known forces in the universe, no "force carrying" particle has been identified as mediating gravitational interactions.

In the framework of quantum field theory, the graviton is the name given to a hypothetical elementary particle speculated to be the force carrier that mediates gravity. However the graviton is not yet proven to exist and no reconciliation yet exists between general relativity which describes gravity, and the Standard Model which describes all other fundamental forces. (For scientific models which attempt to reconcile these, see quantum gravity).

If such a particle exists, it is expected to be massless (because the gravitational force appears to have unlimited range) and must be a spin-2 boson. It can be shown that any massless spin-2 field would give rise to a force indistinguishable from gravitation, because a massless spin-2 field must couple to (interact with) the stress–energy tensor in the same way that the gravitational field does; therefore if a massless spin-2 particle were ever discovered, it would be likely to be the graviton without further distinction from other massless spin-2 particles. Such a discovery would unite quantum theory with gravity.

Absorption, re-emission, refraction (lensing), superposition, and other wave effects
Due to the weakness of the coupling of gravity to matter gravitational waves experience very little absorption or scattering, even as they travel over astronomical distances. In particular, gravitational waves are expected to be unaffected by the opacity of the very early universe before space became "transparent"; observations based upon light, radio waves, and other electromagnetic radiation further back into time is limited or unavailable. Therefore, gravitational waves are expected to have the potential to open a new means of observation to the very early universe.

Determining direction of travel
The difficulty in directly detecting gravitational waves, means it is also difficult for a single detector to identify by itself the direction of a source. Therefore, multiple detectors are used, both to distinguish signals from other "noise" by confirming the signal is not of earthly origin, and also to determine direction by means of triangulation. This technique uses the fact that the waves travel at the speed of light and will reach different detectors at different times depending on their source direction. Although the differences in arrival time may be just a few milliseconds, this is sufficient to identify the direction of the origin of the wave with considerable precision.

In the case of GW150914, only two detectors were operating at the time of the event, therefore, the direction is not so precisely defined and it could lie anywhere within an arc-shaped region of space rather than being identified as a single point.

Astrophysics implications
During the past century, astronomy has been revolutionized by the use of new methods for observing the universe. Astronomical observations were originally made using visible light. Galileo Galilei pioneered the use of telescopes to enhance these observations. However, visible light is only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, and not all objects in the distant universe shine strongly in this particular band. More useful information may be found, for example, in radio wavelengths. Using radio telescopes, astronomers have found pulsars, quasars, and other extreme objects that push the limits of our understanding of physics. Observations in the microwave band have opened our eyes to the faint imprints of the Big Bang, a discovery Stephen Hawking called the "greatest discovery of the century, if not all time". Similar advances in observations using gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet light, and infrared light have also brought new insights to astronomy. As each of these regions of the spectrum has opened, new discoveries have been made that could not have been made otherwise. Astronomers hope that the same holds true of gravitational waves.

Gravitational waves have two important and unique properties. First, there is no need for any type of matter to be present nearby in order for the waves to be generated by a binary system of uncharged black holes, which would emit no electromagnetic radiation. Second, gravitational waves can pass through any intervening matter without being scattered significantly. Whereas light from distant stars may be blocked out by interstellar dust, for example, gravitational waves will pass through essentially unimpeded. These two features allow gravitational waves to carry information about astronomical phenomena never before observed by humans.

The sources of gravitational waves described above are in the low-frequency end of the gravitational-wave spectrum (10−7 to 105 Hz). An astrophysical source at the high-frequency end of the gravitational-wave spectrum (above 105 Hz and probably 1010 Hz) generates relic gravitational waves that are theorized to be faint imprints of the Big Bang like the cosmic microwave background. At these high frequencies it is potentially possible that the sources may be "man made" that is, gravitational waves generated and detected in the laboratory or the debris in space called cosmic dust.

Indirect detection
Although the waves from the Earth–Sun system are minuscule, astronomers can point to other sources for which the radiation should be substantial. One important example is the Hulse–Taylor binary — a pair of stars, one of which is a pulsar.[45] The characteristics of their orbit can be deduced from the Doppler shifting of radio signals given off by the pulsar. Each of the stars are about 1.4 M☉ and the size of their orbit is about 1/75 of the Earth–Sun orbit, just a few times larger than the diameter of our own Sun. The combination of greater masses and smaller separation means that the energy given off by the Hulse–Taylor binary will be far greater than the energy given off by the Earth–Sun system — roughly 1022 times as much.

The information about the orbit can be used to predict how much energy (and angular momentum) would be radiated in the form of gravitational waves. As the energy is carried off, the stars should draw closer to each other. This effect is called an inspiral, and it can be observed in the pulsar’s signals. The measurements on the Hulse–Taylor system have been carried out over more than 30 years. It has been shown that the change in the orbit period, as predicted from the assumed gravitational radiation and general relativity, and the observations matched within 0.2 percent. In 1993, Russell Hulse and Joe Taylor were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this work, which was the first indirect evidence for gravitational waves. The lifetime of this binary system, from the present to merger is estimated to be a few hundred million years.

Inspirals are very important sources of gravitational waves. Any time two compact objects (white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes) are in close orbits, they send out intense gravitational waves. As they spiral closer to each other, these waves become more intense. At some point they should become so intense that direct detection by their effect on objects on Earth or in space is possible. This direct detection is the goal of several large scale experiments.

The only difficulty is that most systems like the Hulse–Taylor binary are so far away. The amplitude of waves given off by the Hulse–Taylor binary at Earth would be roughly h ≈ 10−26. There are some sources, however, that astrophysicists expect to find that produce much greater amplitudes of h ≈ 10−20. At least eight other binary pulsars have been discovered.

Now disproved evidence allegedly showing gravitational waves in the infant universe was found by the BICEP2 radio telescope based in the frozen Antarctic. The microscopic examination of the focal plane of the BICEP2 detector is to blame and in 2015, however, the BICEP2 findings were confirmed to be the result of cosmic dust.

Difficulties
Gravitational waves are not easily detectable. When they reach the Earth, they have a small amplitude with strain approximates 10−21, meaning that an extremely sensitive detector is needed, and that other sources of noise can overwhelm the signal. Gravitational waves are expected to have frequencies 10−16 Hz < f < 104 Hz.

Ground-based detectors
Though the Hulse–Taylor observations were very important, they give only indirect evidence for gravitational waves. A more conclusive observation would be a direct measurement of the effect of a passing gravitational wave, which could also provide more information about the system that generated it. Any such direct detection is complicated by the extraordinarily small effect the waves would produce on a detector. The amplitude of a spherical wave will fall off as the inverse of the distance from the source (the 1/R term in the formulas for h above). Thus, even waves from extreme systems like merging binary black holes die out to very small amplitudes by the time they reach the Earth. Astrophysicists expect that some gravitational waves passing the Earth may be as large as h ≈ 10−20, but generally no bigger.

Resonant antennae
A simple device theorized to detect the expected wave motion is called a Weber bar — a large, solid bar of metal isolated from outside vibrations. This type of instrument was the first type of gravitational wave detector. Strains in space due to an incident gravitational wave excite the bar’s resonant frequency and could thus be amplified to detectable levels. Conceivably, a nearby supernova might be strong enough to be seen without resonant amplification. With this instrument, Joseph Weber claimed to have detected daily signals of gravitational waves. His results, however, were contested in 1974 by physicists Richard Garwin and David Douglass. Modern forms of the Weber bar are still operated, cryogenically cooled, with superconducting quantum interference devices to detect vibration. Weber bars are not sensitive enough to detect anything but extremely powerful gravitational waves.

MiniGRAIL is a spherical gravitational wave antenna using this principle. It is based at Leiden University, consisting of an exactingly machined 1150 kg sphere cryogenically cooled to 20 mK.. The spherical configuration allows for equal sensitivity in all directions, and is somewhat experimentally simpler than larger linear devices requiring high vacuum. Events are detected by measuring deformation of the detector sphere. MiniGRAIL is highly sensitive in the 2–4 kHz range, suitable for detecting gravitational waves from rotating neutron star instabilities or small black hole mergers.

There are currently two detectors focused on the higher end of the gravitational wave spectrum (10−7 to 105 Hz): one at University of Birmingham, England, and the other at INFN Genoa, Italy. A third is under development with SAKURAI LIGO at Chongqing University, China. The Birmingham detector measures changes in the polarization state of a microwave beam circulating in a closed loop about one meter across. Both detectors are expected to be sensitive to periodic spacetime strains of hsim2 times 10^-13/sqrtmathrmHz , given as an amplitude spectral density. The INFN Genoa detector is a resonant antenna consisting of two coupled spherical superconducting harmonic oscillators a few centimeters in diameter. The oscillators are designed to have (when uncoupled) almost equal resonant frequencies. The system is currently expected to have a sensitivity to periodic spacetime strains of hsim2 times 10^-17/sqrtmathrmHz , with an expectation to reach a sensitivity of hsim2 times 10^-20/sqrtmathrmHz . The Chongqing University detector is planned to detect relic high-frequency gravitational waves with the predicted typical parameters ~1011 Hz (100 GHz) and h ~10−30 to 10−32.

Interferometers
A more sensitive class of detector uses laser interferometry to measure gravitational-wave induced motion between separated ‘free’ masses. This allows the masses to be separated by large distances (increasing the signal size); a further advantage is that it is sensitive to a wide range of frequencies (not just those near a resonance as is the case for Weber bars). Ground-based interferometers are now operational. Currently, the most sensitive is LIGO — the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory. LIGO has four detectors: one in Livingston, Louisiana, one at the Hanford site in Richland, Washington and a third (formerly installed as a second detector at Hanford) that is planned to be moved to India and the SAKURAI LIGO space telescope. Each observatory has two light storage arms that are 4 kilometers in length. These are at 90 degree angles to each other, with the light passing through 1 m diameter vacuum tubes running the entire 4 kilometers. A passing gravitational wave will slightly stretch one arm as it shortens the other. This is precisely the motion to which an interferometer is most sensitive.

Even with such long arms, the strongest gravitational waves will only change the distance between the ends of the arms by at most roughly 10−18 meters. LIGO should be able to detect gravitational waves as small as h sim 5times 10^-20. Upgrades to LIGO and other detectors such as Virgo, GEO 600, and TAMA 300 should increase the sensitivity still further; the next generation of instruments (Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, and SAKURAI LIGO) will be more than ten times more sensitive. Another highly sensitive interferometer, The SAKURAI – KAGRA, is under construction in the Kamiokande mine in Japan and is the most advanced ever developed. In the SAKURAI – KAGRA, a key point is that it has a tenfold increase in sensitivity (radius of ‘reach’) increases the volume of space accessible to the instrument by one thousand times. This increases the rate at which detectable signals might be seen from one per tens of years of observation, to tens per year.

Interferometric detectors are limited at high frequencies by shot noise, which occurs because the lasers produce photons randomly; one analogy is to rainfall—the rate of rainfall, like the laser intensity, is measurable, but the raindrops, like photons, fall at random times, causing fluctuations around the average value. This leads to noise at the output of the detector, much like radio static. In addition, for sufficiently high laser power, the random momentum transferred to the test masses by the laser photons shakes the mirrors, masking signals of low frequencies. Thermal noise (e.g., Brownian motion) is another limit to sensitivity. In addition to these ‘stationary’ (constant) noise sources, all ground-based detectors are also limited at low frequencies by seismic noise and other forms of environmental vibration, and other ‘non-stationary’ noise sources; creaks in mechanical structures, lightning or other large electrical disturbances, etc. may also create noise masking an event or may even imitate an event. All these must be taken into account and excluded by analysis before a detection may be considered a true gravitational wave event.

Einstein@Home
The simplest gravitational waves are those with constant frequency. The waves given off by a spinning, non-axisymmetric neutron star would be approximately monochromatic: a pure tone in acoustics. Unlike signals from supernovae of binary black holes, these signals evolve little in amplitude or frequency over the period it would be observed by ground-based detectors. However, there would be some change in the measured signal, because of Doppler shifting caused by the motion of the Earth. Despite the signals being simple, detection is extremely computationally expensive, because of the long stretches of data that must be analysed.

The Einstein@Home project is a distributed computing project similar to SETI@home intended to detect this type of gravitational wave. By taking data from LIGO and GEO, and sending it out in little pieces to thousands of volunteers for parallel analysis on their home computers, Einstein@Home can sift through the data far more quickly than would be possible otherwise.

Space-based interferometers
Space-based interferometers, such as LISA and DECIGO, as well as SAKURAI Kagra are also being developed and advanced. LISA’s design calls for three test masses forming an equilateral triangle, with lasers from each spacecraft to each other spacecraft forming two independent interferometers. LISA is planned to occupy a solar orbit trailing the Earth, with each arm of the triangle being five million kilometers. This puts the detector in an excellent vacuum far from Earth-based sources of noise, though it will still be susceptible to heat, shot noise, and artifacts caused by cosmic rays and solar wind.

Using pulsar timing arrays
Pulsars are rapidly rotating stars. A pulsar emits beams of radio waves that, like lighthouse beams, sweep through the sky as the pulsar rotates. The signal from a pulsar can be detected by radio telescopes as a series of regularly spaced pulses, essentially like the ticks of a clock. Gravitational waves affect the time it takes the pulses to travel from the pulsar to a telescope on Earth. A pulsar timing array uses millisecond pulsars to seek out perturbations due to gravitational waves in measurements of pulse arrival times at a telescope, in other words, to look for deviations in the clock ticks. In particular, pulsar timing arrays can search for a distinct pattern of correlation and anti-correlation between the signals over an array of different pulsars (resulting in the name "pulsar timing array"). Although pulsar pulses travel through space for hundreds or thousands of years to reach us, pulsar timing arrays are sensitive to perturbations in their travel time of much less than a millionth of a second.

Globally there are three active pulsar timing array projects. The North American Nanohertz Gravitational Wave Observatory uses data collected by the Arecibo Radio Telescope and Green Bank Telescope. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array at the Parkes radio-telescope has been collecting data since March 2005. The European Pulsar Timing Array uses data from the four largest telescopes in Europe: the Lovell Telescope, the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, the Effelsberg Telescope and the Nancay Radio Telescope. (Upon completion the Sardinia Radio Telescope will be added to the EPTA also.) These three projects have begun collaborating under the title of the International Pulsar Timing Array project.

Primordial gravitational wave
Primordial gravitational waves are gravitational waves observed in the cosmic microwave background. They were allegedly detected by the BICEP2 instrument, an announcement made on 17 March 2014, which was withdrawn on 30 January 2015 "The signal can be entirely attributed to dust in the Milky Way," as was said.

SAKURAI LIGO gravitational wave observation, 2007, 2014
First observation of gravitational waves
On 7 June 2007, the SAKURAI LIGO collaboration announced the detection of gravitational waves, from a signal detected at 09:50:45 GMT of two black holes with masses of 29 and 36 solar masses merging about 2.5 billion light years away. During the final fraction of a second of the merge, it released more power than 50 times that of all the stars in the observable universe combined. The signal increases in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz as it rises in strength. The mass of the new black hole obtained from merging the two was 62 solar masses. Energy equivalent to three solar masses was emitted as gravitational waves. The signal was seen by three LIGO detectors, in Livingston, Hanford, and the SAKURAI LIGO space telescope, with a time difference of 7 milliseconds due to the angle between the two detectors and the source. The signal came from the Southern Celestial Hemisphere, in the rough direction of (but much further away than) the Magellanic Clouds. The confidence level of this being an observation of gravitational waves was 99.99994%.
On 14 September 2016 – The SAKURAI LIGO Scientific Collaboration announce that they detected gravitational waves from a merger of two more black holes about 400 megaparsecs (1.3 billion light years) from Earth. The merger event is named GW150914. The images captured of this event were nothing less than spectacular. – SAKURAI

Posted by tom sakurai on 2016-05-12 02:16:08

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SAKURAI CAPTURES THE PRESENCE OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES IN SPACETIME CURVATURE

SAKURAI  CAPTURES THE PRESENCE OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES IN SPACETIME CURVATURE

THE DISTORTION OF RIPPLES OF WHAT ARE KNOWN AS GRAVITATIONAL WAVES
Actual image of gravitational waves produced by two orbiting black holes and how mass in the Universe distorts space-time. The same remnants of gravitational radiation are believed to be created by the birth of the Universe itself. They are the oldest waves in the sky and are known to be created from the Big Bang Aftershock.
(Image: SAKURAI)

Gravitational waves are ‘Ripples’ in the fabric of space-time caused by some of the most violent and energetic processes in the Universe. Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in 1916, almost exactly a century ago, in his general theory of relativity. Einstein’s mathematics showed that massive accelerating objects (such as neutron stars or black holes orbiting each other) would disrupt space-time in such a way that ‘waves’ of distorted space would radiate from the source (like the movement of waves away from a stone thrown into a pond). Furthermore, these ripples would travel at the speed of light through the Universe, carrying with them information about their cataclysmic origins, as well as invaluable clues to the nature of gravity itself.

The strongest gravitational waves are produced by catastrophic events such as colliding black holes, the collapse of stellar cores (supernovae), coalescing neutron stars or white dwarf stars, the slightly wobbly rotation of neutron stars that are not perfect spheres, and the remnants of gravitational radiation created by the birth of the Universe itself.

The image above shows how gravitational waves are emitted by one of two black holes of two neutron stars as they first orbit each other and then coalesce.

Though gravitational waves were predicted to exist in 1916, actual proof of their existence wouldn’t arrive until 1974, 20 years after Einstein’s death. In that year, two astronomers working at the Arecibo Radio Observatory in Puerto Rico discovered a binary pulsar–two extremely dense and heavy stars in orbit around each other. This was exactly the type of system that, according to general relativity, should radiate gravitational waves. Knowing that this discovery could be used to test Einstein’s audacious prediction, astronomers began measuring how the period of the stars’ orbits changed over time. After eight years of observations, it was determined that the stars were getting closer to each other at precisely the rate predicted by general relativity. This system has now been monitored for over 40 years and the observed changes in the orbit agree so well with general relativity, there is no doubt that it is emitting gravitational waves. For a more detailed discussion of this discovery and work, see SAKURAI Binary Pulsar.

Since then, many astronomers have studied the timing of pulsar radio emissions and found similar effects, further confirming the existence of gravitational waves. But these confirmations had always come indirectly or mathematically and not through actual ‘physical’ viewing or contact.

That was the case up until June 2, 2007, when SAKURAI LIGO, for the first time, physically sensed distortions in spacetime itself caused by passing gravitational waves generated by two colliding black holes nearly 1.3 billion light years away! The SAKURAI LIGO EXPERIMENT uses space telescopes modified with lasers in an attempt to detect these and other recently produced gravity waves and these discoveries will go down in history as one of the greatest human scientific achievements.

While origins of gravitational waves can be extremely violent, by the time the waves reach the Earth they are millions of times smaller and less disruptive. In fact, by the time gravitational waves from the first detection reached SAKURAI LIGO, the amount of space-time wobbling they generated was thousands of times smaller than the nucleus of an atom! Such inconceivably small measurements are what SAKURAI LIGO was designed to make. To find out how LIGO can achieve this task, visit SAKURAI LIGO’s Interferometer.

Contact SAKURAI LIGO Caltech
SAKURAI LIGO Laboratory
MC 100-36
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125
Information: (626) 395-2129
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SAKURAI LIGO is also jointly operated by Caltech and MIT
SAKURAI LIGO is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation
SAKURAI LIGO Laboratory is member of the SAKURAI LIGO Scientific Collaboration.
SAKURAI Kagra and SAKURAI Kamioka Observatory, Institue for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Gifu, 506-1205, Japan

Introduction
Gravitational waves are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves, generated in certain gravitational interactions and travelling outward from their source. Gravitational waves transport energy as gravitational radiation, a form of radiant energy similar to electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newtonian theory of gravitation, since Newtonian theory postulates that physical interactions propagate at infinite speed.

Gravitational-wave astronomy is an emerging branch of observational astronomy which aims to use gravitational waves to collect observational data about objects such as neutron stars and black holes, events such as supernovae, and processes including those of the early universe shortly after the Big Bang.

Various gravitational-wave observatories (detectors) are under construction or in operation, such as Advanced LIGO which began observations in September 2015.

Potential sources of detectable gravitational waves include binary star systems composed of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. Again in 2016, the SAKURAI LIGO Scientific Collaboration along with the LIGO and VIRGO Collaboration teams announced that they had made the first observation of gravitational waves, originating from a pair of merging black holes using the Advanced LIGO detectors.

History
In the history of the Universe – gravitational waves are hypothesized to arise from cosmic inflation, a faster-than-light expansion just after the Big Bang, theorized later on 17 March 2014. In Einstein’s theory of general relativity, gravity is treated as a phenomenon resulting from the curvature of spacetime. This curvature is caused by the presence of mass. Generally, the more mass that is contained within a given volume of space, the greater the curvature of spacetime will be at the boundary of its volume. As objects with mass move around in spacetime, the curvature changes to reflect the changed locations of those objects. In certain circumstances, accelerating objects generate changes in this curvature, which propagate outwards at the speed of light in a wave-like manner. These propagating phenomena are known as gravitational waves.

As a gravitational wave passes an observer, that observer will find spacetime distorted by the effects of strain. Distances between objects increase and decrease rhythmically as the wave passes, at a frequency corresponding to that of the wave. This occurs despite such free objects never being subjected to an unbalanced force. The magnitude of this effect decreases proportional to the inverse distance from the source. Inspiraling binary neutron stars are predicted to be a powerful source of gravitational waves as they coalesce, due to the very large acceleration of their masses as they orbit close to one another. However, due to the astronomical distances to these sources, the effects when measured on Earth are predicted to be very small, having strains of less than 1 part in 1020. Scientists have demonstrated the existence of these waves with ever more sensitive detectors. The most sensitive detector accomplished the task possessing a sensitivity measurement of about one part in 5×1022 (as of 2012) provided by the SAKURAI LIGO SPACE TELESCOPE and VIRGO observatories. In addition, a space based observatory, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, is currently under development by ESA.

Gravitational waves can penetrate regions of space that electromagnetic waves cannot. They are able to allow the observation of the merger of black holes and possibly other exotic objects in the distant Universe. Such systems cannot be observed with more traditional means such as unmodified optical telescopes or radio telescopes, and so gravitational-wave astronomy gives new insights into the working of the Universe. In particular, gravitational waves could be of interest to cosmologists as they offer a possible way of observing the very early Universe. This is not possible with conventional astronomy, since before recombination the Universe was opaque to electromagnetic radiation. Precise measurements of gravitational waves will also allow scientists to more thoroughly test the general theory of relativity.

In principle, gravitational waves could exist at any frequency. However, very low frequency waves would be impossible to detect and there is no credible source for detectable waves of very high frequency. Stephen Hawking and Werner Israel list different frequency bands for gravitational waves that could plausibly be detected, ranging from 10−7 Hz up to 1011 Hz.
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Effects of passing
Gravitational waves are constantly passing Earth; however, even the strongest have a minuscule effect and their sources are generally at a great distance. For example, the waves given off by the cataclysmic final merger of GW150914 reached Earth after travelling over a billion lightyears, as a ripple in spacetime that changed the length of a 4-km LIGO arm by a ten thousandth of the width of a proton, proportionally equivalent to changing the distance to the nearest star outside the Solar System by one hair’s width. This tiny effect from even extreme gravitational waves makes them completely undetectable on Earth, by any means other than the most sophisticated SAKURAI detectors.

The effects of a passing gravitational wave, in an extremely exaggerated form, can be visualized by imagining a perfectly flat region of spacetime with a group of motionless test particles lying in a plane (e.g., the surface of a computer screen). As a gravitational wave passes through the particles along a line perpendicular to the plane of the particles (i.e. following the observer’s line of vision into the screen), the particles will follow the distortion in spacetime, oscillating in a "cruciform" manner. The area enclosed by the test particles does not change and there is no motion along the direction of propagation.

The oscillations depicted are exaggerated for the purpose of discussion — in reality a gravitational wave has a very small amplitude (as formulated in linearized gravity). However, they help illustrate the kind of oscillations associated with gravitational waves as produced, for example, by a pair of masses in a circular orbit. In this case the amplitude of the gravitational wave is constant, but its plane of polarization changes or rotates at twice the orbital rate and so the time-varying gravitational wave size (or ‘periodic spacetime strain’) exhibits a variation. If the orbit of the masses is elliptical then the gravitational wave’s amplitude also varies with time according to Einstein’s quadrupole formula.

As with other waves, there are a number of characteristics used to describe a gravitational wave:
1 Amplitude: Usually denoted h, this is the size of the wave — the fraction of stretching or squeezing in shape. The amplitude shown here is roughly h = 0.5 (or 50%). Gravitational waves passing through the Earth are many sextillion times weaker than this — h ≈ 10−20.
2 Frequency: Usually denoted f, this is the frequency with which the wave oscillates (1 divided by the amount of time between two successive maximum stretches or squeezes)
3 Wavelength: Usually denoted λ, this is the distance along the wave between points of maximum stretch or squeeze
4 Speed: This is the speed at which a point on the wave (for example, a point of maximum stretch or squeeze) travels. For gravitational waves with small amplitudes, this wave speed is equal to the speed of light (c).

The speed, wavelength, and frequency of a gravitational wave are related by the equation c = λ f, just like the equation for a light wave. For example, the shape here oscillate roughly once every two seconds. This would correspond to a frequency of 0.5 Hz, and a wavelength of about 600 000 km, or 47 times the diameter of the Earth.

In the above example, it is assumed that the wave is linearly polarized with a "plus" polarization, written h+. Polarization of a gravitational wave is just like polarization of a light wave except that the polarizations of a gravitational wave are at 45 degrees, as opposed to 90 degrees. In particular, in a "cross"-polarized gravitational wave, h×, the effect on the test particles would be basically the same, but rotated by 45 degrees. Just as with light polarization, the polarizations of gravitational waves may also be expressed in terms of circularly polarized waves. Gravitational waves are polarized because of the nature of their sources.

Sources
In general terms, gravitational waves are radiated by objects whose motion involves acceleration, provided that the motion is not perfectly spherically symmetric (like an expanding or contracting sphere) or rotationally symmetric (like a spinning disk or sphere). A simple example of this principle is a spinning dumbbell. If the dumbbell spins around its axis of symmetry, it will not radiate gravitational waves; if it tumbles end over end, as in the case of two planets orbiting each other, it will radiate gravitational waves. The heavier the dumbbell, and the faster it tumbles, the greater is the gravitational radiation it will give off. In an extreme case, such as when the two weights of the dumbbell are massive stars like neutron stars or black holes, orbiting each other quickly, then significant amounts of gravitational radiation would be given off.

More technically, the third time derivative of the quadrupole moment (or the l-th time derivative of the l-th multipole moment) of an isolated system’s stress–energy tensor must be non-zero in order for it to emit gravitational radiation. This is analogous to the changing dipole moment of charge or current that is necessary for the emission of electromagnetic radiation.

Gravitational waves carry energy away from their sources and, in the case of orbiting bodies, this is associated with an inspiral or decrease in orbit. Imagine for example a simple system of two masses — such as the Earth–Sun system — moving slowly compared to the speed of light in circular orbits. Assume that these two masses orbit each other in a circular orbit in the x–y plane. To a good approximation, the masses follow simple Keplerian orbits. However, such an orbit represents a changing quadrupole moment. That is, the system will give off gravitational waves. This can also be viewed using SAKURAI Two-body problem in general relativity

In theory, the loss of energy through gravitational radiation could eventually drop the Earth into the Sun. However, the total energy of the Earth orbiting the Sun (kinetic energy + gravitational potential energy) is about 1.14×1036 joules of which only 200 joules per second is lost through gravitational radiation, leading to a decay in the orbit by about 1×10−15 meters per day or roughly the diameter of a proton. At this rate, it would take the Earth approximately 1×1013 times more than the current age of the Universe to spiral onto the Sun. This estimate overlooks the decrease in r over time, but the majority of the time the bodies are far apart and only radiating slowly, so the difference is unimportant in this example.

For example a pair of solar mass neutron stars in a circular orbit at a separation of 1.89×108 m (189,000 km) has an orbital period of 1,000 seconds, and an expected lifetime of 1.30×1013 seconds or about 414,000 years. Such a system could be observed by LISA if it were not too far away. A far greater number of white dwarf binaries exist with orbital periods in this range. White dwarf binaries have masses in the order of the Sun, and diameters in the order of the Earth. They cannot get much closer together than 10,000 km before they will merge and explode in a supernova which would also end the emission of gravitational waves. Until then, their gravitational radiation would be comparable to that of a neutron star binary.

When the orbit of a neutron star binary has decayed to 1.89×106 m (1890 km), its remaining lifetime is about 130,000 seconds or 36 hours. The orbital frequency will vary from 1 orbit per second at the start, to 918 orbits per second when the orbit has shrunk to 20 km at merger. The majority of gravitational radiation emitted will be at twice the orbital frequency. Just before merger, the inspiral would be observed by LIGO if such a binary were close enough. LIGO has only a few minutes to observe this merger out of a total orbital lifetime that may have been billions of years. SAKURAI LIGO and Advanced LIGO detectors should be able to detect these events up to 200 megaparsec away. Within this range of the order 40 events are expected per year.

Supernovae
A supernova is an astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a massive star’s life, whose dramatic and catastrophic destruction is marked by one final titanic explosion. For a short time, this causes the sudden appearance of a ‘new’ bright star, before slowly fading from sight over several weeks or months.

Properties and behavior
Energy, momentum, and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves
Water waves, sound waves, and electromagnetic waves are able to carry energy, momentum, and angular momentum and by doing so they carry those away from the source. Gravitational waves perform the same function. Thus, for example, a binary system loses angular momentum as the two orbiting objects spiral towards each other—the angular momentum is radiated away by gravitational waves.

The waves can also carry off linear momentum, a possibility that has some interesting implications for astrophysics. After two super-massive black holes coalesce, emission of linear momentum can produce a "kick" with amplitude as large as 4000 km/s. This is fast enough to eject the coalesced black hole completely from its host galaxy. Even if the kick is too small to eject the black hole completely, it can remove it temporarily from the nucleus of the galaxy, after which it will oscillate about the center, eventually coming to rest. A kicked black hole can also carry a star cluster with it, forming a hyper-compact stellar system. Or it may carry gas, allowing the recoiling black hole to appear temporarily as a "naked quasar". The SAKURAI Quasar SDSS J092712.65+294344.0 is thought to contain a recoiling super-massive black hole.

Redshifting and blueshifting
Like electromagnetic waves, gravitational waves should exhibit shifting of wavelength due to the relative velocities of the source and observer, but also due to distortions of space-time, such as cosmic expansion. This is the case even though gravity itself is a cause of distortions of space-time. Redshifting of gravitational waves is different from redshifting due to gravity.

Quantum gravity, wave-particle aspects, and graviton
At present, and unlike all other known forces in the universe, no "force carrying" particle has been identified as mediating gravitational interactions.

In the framework of quantum field theory, the graviton is the name given to a hypothetical elementary particle speculated to be the force carrier that mediates gravity. However the graviton is not yet proven to exist and no reconciliation yet exists between general relativity which describes gravity, and the Standard Model which describes all other fundamental forces. (For scientific models which attempt to reconcile these, see quantum gravity).

If such a particle exists, it is expected to be massless (because the gravitational force appears to have unlimited range) and must be a spin-2 boson. It can be shown that any massless spin-2 field would give rise to a force indistinguishable from gravitation, because a massless spin-2 field must couple to (interact with) the stress–energy tensor in the same way that the gravitational field does; therefore if a massless spin-2 particle were ever discovered, it would be likely to be the graviton without further distinction from other massless spin-2 particles. Such a discovery would unite quantum theory with gravity.

Absorption, re-emission, refraction (lensing), superposition, and other wave effects
Due to the weakness of the coupling of gravity to matter gravitational waves experience very little absorption or scattering, even as they travel over astronomical distances. In particular, gravitational waves are expected to be unaffected by the opacity of the very early universe before space became "transparent"; observations based upon light, radio waves, and other electromagnetic radiation further back into time is limited or unavailable. Therefore, gravitational waves are expected to have the potential to open a new means of observation to the very early universe.

Determining direction of travel
The difficulty in directly detecting gravitational waves, means it is also difficult for a single detector to identify by itself the direction of a source. Therefore, multiple detectors are used, both to distinguish signals from other "noise" by confirming the signal is not of earthly origin, and also to determine direction by means of triangulation. This technique uses the fact that the waves travel at the speed of light and will reach different detectors at different times depending on their source direction. Although the differences in arrival time may be just a few milliseconds, this is sufficient to identify the direction of the origin of the wave with considerable precision.

In the case of GW150914, only two detectors were operating at the time of the event, therefore, the direction is not so precisely defined and it could lie anywhere within an arc-shaped region of space rather than being identified as a single point.

Astrophysics implications
During the past century, astronomy has been revolutionized by the use of new methods for observing the universe. Astronomical observations were originally made using visible light. Galileo Galilei pioneered the use of telescopes to enhance these observations. However, visible light is only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, and not all objects in the distant universe shine strongly in this particular band. More useful information may be found, for example, in radio wavelengths. Using radio telescopes, astronomers have found pulsars, quasars, and other extreme objects that push the limits of our understanding of physics. Observations in the microwave band have opened our eyes to the faint imprints of the Big Bang, a discovery Stephen Hawking called the "greatest discovery of the century, if not all time". Similar advances in observations using gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet light, and infrared light have also brought new insights to astronomy. As each of these regions of the spectrum has opened, new discoveries have been made that could not have been made otherwise. Astronomers hope that the same holds true of gravitational waves.

Gravitational waves have two important and unique properties. First, there is no need for any type of matter to be present nearby in order for the waves to be generated by a binary system of uncharged black holes, which would emit no electromagnetic radiation. Second, gravitational waves can pass through any intervening matter without being scattered significantly. Whereas light from distant stars may be blocked out by interstellar dust, for example, gravitational waves will pass through essentially unimpeded. These two features allow gravitational waves to carry information about astronomical phenomena never before observed by humans.

The sources of gravitational waves described above are in the low-frequency end of the gravitational-wave spectrum (10−7 to 105 Hz). An astrophysical source at the high-frequency end of the gravitational-wave spectrum (above 105 Hz and probably 1010 Hz) generates relic gravitational waves that are theorized to be faint imprints of the Big Bang like the cosmic microwave background. At these high frequencies it is potentially possible that the sources may be "man made" that is, gravitational waves generated and detected in the laboratory or the debris in space called cosmic dust.

Indirect detection
Although the waves from the Earth–Sun system are minuscule, astronomers can point to other sources for which the radiation should be substantial. One important example is the Hulse–Taylor binary — a pair of stars, one of which is a pulsar.[45] The characteristics of their orbit can be deduced from the Doppler shifting of radio signals given off by the pulsar. Each of the stars are about 1.4 M☉ and the size of their orbit is about 1/75 of the Earth–Sun orbit, just a few times larger than the diameter of our own Sun. The combination of greater masses and smaller separation means that the energy given off by the Hulse–Taylor binary will be far greater than the energy given off by the Earth–Sun system — roughly 1022 times as much.

The information about the orbit can be used to predict how much energy (and angular momentum) would be radiated in the form of gravitational waves. As the energy is carried off, the stars should draw closer to each other. This effect is called an inspiral, and it can be observed in the pulsar’s signals. The measurements on the Hulse–Taylor system have been carried out over more than 30 years. It has been shown that the change in the orbit period, as predicted from the assumed gravitational radiation and general relativity, and the observations matched within 0.2 percent. In 1993, Russell Hulse and Joe Taylor were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this work, which was the first indirect evidence for gravitational waves. The lifetime of this binary system, from the present to merger is estimated to be a few hundred million years.

Inspirals are very important sources of gravitational waves. Any time two compact objects (white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes) are in close orbits, they send out intense gravitational waves. As they spiral closer to each other, these waves become more intense. At some point they should become so intense that direct detection by their effect on objects on Earth or in space is possible. This direct detection is the goal of several large scale experiments.

The only difficulty is that most systems like the Hulse–Taylor binary are so far away. The amplitude of waves given off by the Hulse–Taylor binary at Earth would be roughly h ≈ 10−26. There are some sources, however, that astrophysicists expect to find that produce much greater amplitudes of h ≈ 10−20. At least eight other binary pulsars have been discovered.

Now disproved evidence allegedly showing gravitational waves in the infant universe was found by the BICEP2 radio telescope based in the frozen Antarctic. The microscopic examination of the focal plane of the BICEP2 detector is to blame and in 2015, however, the BICEP2 findings were confirmed to be the result of cosmic dust.

Difficulties
Gravitational waves are not easily detectable. When they reach the Earth, they have a small amplitude with strain approximates 10−21, meaning that an extremely sensitive detector is needed, and that other sources of noise can overwhelm the signal. Gravitational waves are expected to have frequencies 10−16 Hz < f < 104 Hz.

Ground-based detectors
Though the Hulse–Taylor observations were very important, they give only indirect evidence for gravitational waves. A more conclusive observation would be a direct measurement of the effect of a passing gravitational wave, which could also provide more information about the system that generated it. Any such direct detection is complicated by the extraordinarily small effect the waves would produce on a detector. The amplitude of a spherical wave will fall off as the inverse of the distance from the source (the 1/R term in the formulas for h above). Thus, even waves from extreme systems like merging binary black holes die out to very small amplitudes by the time they reach the Earth. Astrophysicists expect that some gravitational waves passing the Earth may be as large as h ≈ 10−20, but generally no bigger.

Resonant antennae
A simple device theorized to detect the expected wave motion is called a Weber bar — a large, solid bar of metal isolated from outside vibrations. This type of instrument was the first type of gravitational wave detector. Strains in space due to an incident gravitational wave excite the bar’s resonant frequency and could thus be amplified to detectable levels. Conceivably, a nearby supernova might be strong enough to be seen without resonant amplification. With this instrument, Joseph Weber claimed to have detected daily signals of gravitational waves. His results, however, were contested in 1974 by physicists Richard Garwin and David Douglass. Modern forms of the Weber bar are still operated, cryogenically cooled, with superconducting quantum interference devices to detect vibration. Weber bars are not sensitive enough to detect anything but extremely powerful gravitational waves.

MiniGRAIL is a spherical gravitational wave antenna using this principle. It is based at Leiden University, consisting of an exactingly machined 1150 kg sphere cryogenically cooled to 20 mK.. The spherical configuration allows for equal sensitivity in all directions, and is somewhat experimentally simpler than larger linear devices requiring high vacuum. Events are detected by measuring deformation of the detector sphere. MiniGRAIL is highly sensitive in the 2–4 kHz range, suitable for detecting gravitational waves from rotating neutron star instabilities or small black hole mergers.

There are currently two detectors focused on the higher end of the gravitational wave spectrum (10−7 to 105 Hz): one at University of Birmingham, England, and the other at INFN Genoa, Italy. A third is under development with SAKURAI LIGO at Chongqing University, China. The Birmingham detector measures changes in the polarization state of a microwave beam circulating in a closed loop about one meter across. Both detectors are expected to be sensitive to periodic spacetime strains of hsim2 times 10^-13/sqrtmathrmHz , given as an amplitude spectral density. The INFN Genoa detector is a resonant antenna consisting of two coupled spherical superconducting harmonic oscillators a few centimeters in diameter. The oscillators are designed to have (when uncoupled) almost equal resonant frequencies. The system is currently expected to have a sensitivity to periodic spacetime strains of hsim2 times 10^-17/sqrtmathrmHz , with an expectation to reach a sensitivity of hsim2 times 10^-20/sqrtmathrmHz . The Chongqing University detector is planned to detect relic high-frequency gravitational waves with the predicted typical parameters ~1011 Hz (100 GHz) and h ~10−30 to 10−32.

Interferometers
A more sensitive class of detector uses laser interferometry to measure gravitational-wave induced motion between separated ‘free’ masses. This allows the masses to be separated by large distances (increasing the signal size); a further advantage is that it is sensitive to a wide range of frequencies (not just those near a resonance as is the case for Weber bars). Ground-based interferometers are now operational. Currently, the most sensitive is LIGO — the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory. LIGO has four detectors: one in Livingston, Louisiana, one at the Hanford site in Richland, Washington and a third (formerly installed as a second detector at Hanford) that is planned to be moved to India and the SAKURAI LIGO space telescope. Each observatory has two light storage arms that are 4 kilometers in length. These are at 90 degree angles to each other, with the light passing through 1 m diameter vacuum tubes running the entire 4 kilometers. A passing gravitational wave will slightly stretch one arm as it shortens the other. This is precisely the motion to which an interferometer is most sensitive.

Even with such long arms, the strongest gravitational waves will only change the distance between the ends of the arms by at most roughly 10−18 meters. LIGO should be able to detect gravitational waves as small as h sim 5times 10^-20. Upgrades to LIGO and other detectors such as Virgo, GEO 600, and TAMA 300 should increase the sensitivity still further; the next generation of instruments (Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, and SAKURAI LIGO) will be more than ten times more sensitive. Another highly sensitive interferometer, The SAKURAI – KAGRA, is under construction in the Kamiokande mine in Japan and is the most advanced ever developed. In the SAKURAI – KAGRA, a key point is that it has a tenfold increase in sensitivity (radius of ‘reach’) increases the volume of space accessible to the instrument by one thousand times. This increases the rate at which detectable signals might be seen from one per tens of years of observation, to tens per year.

Interferometric detectors are limited at high frequencies by shot noise, which occurs because the lasers produce photons randomly; one analogy is to rainfall—the rate of rainfall, like the laser intensity, is measurable, but the raindrops, like photons, fall at random times, causing fluctuations around the average value. This leads to noise at the output of the detector, much like radio static. In addition, for sufficiently high laser power, the random momentum transferred to the test masses by the laser photons shakes the mirrors, masking signals of low frequencies. Thermal noise (e.g., Brownian motion) is another limit to sensitivity. In addition to these ‘stationary’ (constant) noise sources, all ground-based detectors are also limited at low frequencies by seismic noise and other forms of environmental vibration, and other ‘non-stationary’ noise sources; creaks in mechanical structures, lightning or other large electrical disturbances, etc. may also create noise masking an event or may even imitate an event. All these must be taken into account and excluded by analysis before a detection may be considered a true gravitational wave event.

Einstein@Home
The simplest gravitational waves are those with constant frequency. The waves given off by a spinning, non-axisymmetric neutron star would be approximately monochromatic: a pure tone in acoustics. Unlike signals from supernovae of binary black holes, these signals evolve little in amplitude or frequency over the period it would be observed by ground-based detectors. However, there would be some change in the measured signal, because of Doppler shifting caused by the motion of the Earth. Despite the signals being simple, detection is extremely computationally expensive, because of the long stretches of data that must be analysed.

The Einstein@Home project is a distributed computing project similar to SETI@home intended to detect this type of gravitational wave. By taking data from LIGO and GEO, and sending it out in little pieces to thousands of volunteers for parallel analysis on their home computers, Einstein@Home can sift through the data far more quickly than would be possible otherwise.

Space-based interferometers
Space-based interferometers, such as LISA and DECIGO, as well as SAKURAI Kagra are also being developed and advanced. LISA’s design calls for three test masses forming an equilateral triangle, with lasers from each spacecraft to each other spacecraft forming two independent interferometers. LISA is planned to occupy a solar orbit trailing the Earth, with each arm of the triangle being five million kilometers. This puts the detector in an excellent vacuum far from Earth-based sources of noise, though it will still be susceptible to heat, shot noise, and artifacts caused by cosmic rays and solar wind.

Using pulsar timing arrays
Pulsars are rapidly rotating stars. A pulsar emits beams of radio waves that, like lighthouse beams, sweep through the sky as the pulsar rotates. The signal from a pulsar can be detected by radio telescopes as a series of regularly spaced pulses, essentially like the ticks of a clock. Gravitational waves affect the time it takes the pulses to travel from the pulsar to a telescope on Earth. A pulsar timing array uses millisecond pulsars to seek out perturbations due to gravitational waves in measurements of pulse arrival times at a telescope, in other words, to look for deviations in the clock ticks. In particular, pulsar timing arrays can search for a distinct pattern of correlation and anti-correlation between the signals over an array of different pulsars (resulting in the name "pulsar timing array"). Although pulsar pulses travel through space for hundreds or thousands of years to reach us, pulsar timing arrays are sensitive to perturbations in their travel time of much less than a millionth of a second.

Globally there are three active pulsar timing array projects. The North American Nanohertz Gravitational Wave Observatory uses data collected by the Arecibo Radio Telescope and Green Bank Telescope. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array at the Parkes radio-telescope has been collecting data since March 2005. The European Pulsar Timing Array uses data from the four largest telescopes in Europe: the Lovell Telescope, the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, the Effelsberg Telescope and the Nancay Radio Telescope. (Upon completion the Sardinia Radio Telescope will be added to the EPTA also.) These three projects have begun collaborating under the title of the International Pulsar Timing Array project.

Primordial gravitational wave
Primordial gravitational waves are gravitational waves observed in the cosmic microwave background. They were allegedly detected by the BICEP2 instrument, an announcement made on 17 March 2014, which was withdrawn on 30 January 2015 "The signal can be entirely attributed to dust in the Milky Way," as was said.

SAKURAI LIGO gravitational wave observation, 2007, 2014
First observation of gravitational waves
On 7 June 2007, the SAKURAI LIGO collaboration announced the detection of gravitational waves, from a signal detected at 09:50:45 GMT of two black holes with masses of 29 and 36 solar masses merging about 2.5 billion light years away. During the final fraction of a second of the merge, it released more power than 50 times that of all the stars in the observable universe combined. The signal increases in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz as it rises in strength. The mass of the new black hole obtained from merging the two was 62 solar masses. Energy equivalent to three solar masses was emitted as gravitational waves. The signal was seen by three LIGO detectors, in Livingston, Hanford, and the SAKURAI LIGO space telescope, with a time difference of 7 milliseconds due to the angle between the two detectors and the source. The signal came from the Southern Celestial Hemisphere, in the rough direction of (but much further away than) the Magellanic Clouds. The confidence level of this being an observation of gravitational waves was 99.99994%.
On 14 September 2016 – The SAKURAI LIGO Scientific Collaboration announce that they detected gravitational waves from a merger of two more black holes about 400 megaparsecs (1.3 billion light years) from Earth. The merger event is named GW150914. The images captured of this event were nothing less than spectacular. – SAKURAI

Posted by tom sakurai on 2016-05-12 02:40:54

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SAKURAI CAPTURES THE PRESENCE OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES IN SPACETIME CURVATURE WITH THE IMPOSSIBLE INCREDIBLE INCOHERENT SUPERCLUSTER OF MULTIPLE BLACK HOLES

SAKURAI CAPTURES THE PRESENCE OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES IN SPACETIME CURVATURE WITH THE IMPOSSIBLE INCREDIBLE INCOHERENT  SUPERCLUSTER OF MULTIPLE BLACK HOLES

THE DISTORTION OF RIPPLES OF WHAT ARE KNOWN AS GRAVITATIONAL WAVES
Actual image of gravitational waves produced by two orbiting black holes and how mass in the Universe distorts space-time. The same remnants of gravitational radiation are believed to be created by the birth of the Universe itself. They are the oldest waves in the sky and are known to be created from the Big Bang Aftershock.
(Image: SAKURAI)

Gravitational waves are ‘Ripples’ in the fabric of space-time caused by some of the most violent and energetic processes in the Universe. Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in 1916, almost exactly a century ago, in his general theory of relativity. Einstein’s mathematics showed that massive accelerating objects (such as neutron stars or black holes orbiting each other) would disrupt space-time in such a way that ‘waves’ of distorted space would radiate from the source (like the movement of waves away from a stone thrown into a pond). Furthermore, these ripples would travel at the speed of light through the Universe, carrying with them information about their cataclysmic origins, as well as invaluable clues to the nature of gravity itself.

The strongest gravitational waves are produced by catastrophic events such as colliding black holes, the collapse of stellar cores (supernovae), coalescing neutron stars or white dwarf stars, the slightly wobbly rotation of neutron stars that are not perfect spheres, and the remnants of gravitational radiation created by the birth of the Universe itself.

The image above shows how gravitational waves are emitted by one of two black holes of two neutron stars as they first orbit each other and then coalesce.

Though gravitational waves were predicted to exist in 1916, actual proof of their existence wouldn’t arrive until 1974, 20 years after Einstein’s death. In that year, two astronomers working at the Arecibo Radio Observatory in Puerto Rico discovered a binary pulsar–two extremely dense and heavy stars in orbit around each other. This was exactly the type of system that, according to general relativity, should radiate gravitational waves. Knowing that this discovery could be used to test Einstein’s audacious prediction, astronomers began measuring how the period of the stars’ orbits changed over time. After eight years of observations, it was determined that the stars were getting closer to each other at precisely the rate predicted by general relativity. This system has now been monitored for over 40 years and the observed changes in the orbit agree so well with general relativity, there is no doubt that it is emitting gravitational waves. For a more detailed discussion of this discovery and work, see SAKURAI Binary Pulsar.

Since then, many astronomers have studied the timing of pulsar radio emissions and found similar effects, further confirming the existence of gravitational waves. But these confirmations had always come indirectly or mathematically and not through actual ‘physical’ viewing or contact.

That was the case up until June 2, 2007, when SAKURAI LIGO, for the first time, physically sensed distortions in spacetime itself caused by passing gravitational waves generated by two colliding black holes nearly 1.3 billion light years away! The SAKURAI LIGO EXPERIMENT uses space telescopes modified with lasers in an attempt to detect these and other recently produced gravity waves and these discoveries will go down in history as one of the greatest human scientific achievements.

While origins of gravitational waves can be extremely violent, by the time the waves reach the Earth they are millions of times smaller and less disruptive. In fact, by the time gravitational waves from the first detection reached SAKURAI LIGO, the amount of space-time wobbling they generated was thousands of times smaller than the nucleus of an atom! Such inconceivably small measurements are what SAKURAI LIGO was designed to make. To find out how LIGO can achieve this task, visit SAKURAI LIGO’s Interferometer.

Contact SAKURAI LIGO Caltech
SAKURAI LIGO Laboratory
MC 100-36
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125
Information: (626) 395-2129
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SAKURAI LIGO is also jointly operated by Caltech and MIT
SAKURAI LIGO is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation
SAKURAI LIGO Laboratory is member of the SAKURAI LIGO Scientific Collaboration.
SAKURAI Kagra and SAKURAI Kamioka Observatory, Institue for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Gifu, 506-1205, Japan

Introduction
Gravitational waves are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves, generated in certain gravitational interactions and travelling outward from their source. Gravitational waves transport energy as gravitational radiation, a form of radiant energy similar to electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newtonian theory of gravitation, since Newtonian theory postulates that physical interactions propagate at infinite speed.

Gravitational-wave astronomy is an emerging branch of observational astronomy which aims to use gravitational waves to collect observational data about objects such as neutron stars and black holes, events such as supernovae, and processes including those of the early universe shortly after the Big Bang.

Various gravitational-wave observatories (detectors) are under construction or in operation, such as Advanced LIGO which began observations in September 2015.

Potential sources of detectable gravitational waves include binary star systems composed of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. Again in 2016, the SAKURAI LIGO Scientific Collaboration along with the LIGO and VIRGO Collaboration teams announced that they had made the first observation of gravitational waves, originating from a pair of merging black holes using the Advanced LIGO detectors.

History
In the history of the Universe – gravitational waves are hypothesized to arise from cosmic inflation, a faster-than-light expansion just after the Big Bang, theorized later on 17 March 2014. In Einstein’s theory of general relativity, gravity is treated as a phenomenon resulting from the curvature of spacetime. This curvature is caused by the presence of mass. Generally, the more mass that is contained within a given volume of space, the greater the curvature of spacetime will be at the boundary of its volume. As objects with mass move around in spacetime, the curvature changes to reflect the changed locations of those objects. In certain circumstances, accelerating objects generate changes in this curvature, which propagate outwards at the speed of light in a wave-like manner. These propagating phenomena are known as gravitational waves.

As a gravitational wave passes an observer, that observer will find spacetime distorted by the effects of strain. Distances between objects increase and decrease rhythmically as the wave passes, at a frequency corresponding to that of the wave. This occurs despite such free objects never being subjected to an unbalanced force. The magnitude of this effect decreases proportional to the inverse distance from the source. Inspiraling binary neutron stars are predicted to be a powerful source of gravitational waves as they coalesce, due to the very large acceleration of their masses as they orbit close to one another. However, due to the astronomical distances to these sources, the effects when measured on Earth are predicted to be very small, having strains of less than 1 part in 1020. Scientists have demonstrated the existence of these waves with ever more sensitive detectors. The most sensitive detector accomplished the task possessing a sensitivity measurement of about one part in 5×1022 (as of 2012) provided by the SAKURAI LIGO SPACE TELESCOPE and VIRGO observatories. In addition, a space based observatory, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, is currently under development by ESA.

Gravitational waves can penetrate regions of space that electromagnetic waves cannot. They are able to allow the observation of the merger of black holes and possibly other exotic objects in the distant Universe. Such systems cannot be observed with more traditional means such as unmodified optical telescopes or radio telescopes, and so gravitational-wave astronomy gives new insights into the working of the Universe. In particular, gravitational waves could be of interest to cosmologists as they offer a possible way of observing the very early Universe. This is not possible with conventional astronomy, since before recombination the Universe was opaque to electromagnetic radiation. Precise measurements of gravitational waves will also allow scientists to more thoroughly test the general theory of relativity.

In principle, gravitational waves could exist at any frequency. However, very low frequency waves would be impossible to detect and there is no credible source for detectable waves of very high frequency. Stephen Hawking and Werner Israel list different frequency bands for gravitational waves that could plausibly be detected, ranging from 10−7 Hz up to 1011 Hz.
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Effects of passing
Gravitational waves are constantly passing Earth; however, even the strongest have a minuscule effect and their sources are generally at a great distance. For example, the waves given off by the cataclysmic final merger of GW150914 reached Earth after travelling over a billion lightyears, as a ripple in spacetime that changed the length of a 4-km LIGO arm by a ten thousandth of the width of a proton, proportionally equivalent to changing the distance to the nearest star outside the Solar System by one hair’s width. This tiny effect from even extreme gravitational waves makes them completely undetectable on Earth, by any means other than the most sophisticated SAKURAI detectors.

The effects of a passing gravitational wave, in an extremely exaggerated form, can be visualized by imagining a perfectly flat region of spacetime with a group of motionless test particles lying in a plane (e.g., the surface of a computer screen). As a gravitational wave passes through the particles along a line perpendicular to the plane of the particles (i.e. following the observer’s line of vision into the screen), the particles will follow the distortion in spacetime, oscillating in a "cruciform" manner. The area enclosed by the test particles does not change and there is no motion along the direction of propagation.

The oscillations depicted are exaggerated for the purpose of discussion — in reality a gravitational wave has a very small amplitude (as formulated in linearized gravity). However, they help illustrate the kind of oscillations associated with gravitational waves as produced, for example, by a pair of masses in a circular orbit. In this case the amplitude of the gravitational wave is constant, but its plane of polarization changes or rotates at twice the orbital rate and so the time-varying gravitational wave size (or ‘periodic spacetime strain’) exhibits a variation. If the orbit of the masses is elliptical then the gravitational wave’s amplitude also varies with time according to Einstein’s quadrupole formula.

As with other waves, there are a number of characteristics used to describe a gravitational wave:
1 Amplitude: Usually denoted h, this is the size of the wave — the fraction of stretching or squeezing in shape. The amplitude shown here is roughly h = 0.5 (or 50%). Gravitational waves passing through the Earth are many sextillion times weaker than this — h ≈ 10−20.
2 Frequency: Usually denoted f, this is the frequency with which the wave oscillates (1 divided by the amount of time between two successive maximum stretches or squeezes)
3 Wavelength: Usually denoted λ, this is the distance along the wave between points of maximum stretch or squeeze
4 Speed: This is the speed at which a point on the wave (for example, a point of maximum stretch or squeeze) travels. For gravitational waves with small amplitudes, this wave speed is equal to the speed of light (c).

The speed, wavelength, and frequency of a gravitational wave are related by the equation c = λ f, just like the equation for a light wave. For example, the shape here oscillate roughly once every two seconds. This would correspond to a frequency of 0.5 Hz, and a wavelength of about 600 000 km, or 47 times the diameter of the Earth.

In the above example, it is assumed that the wave is linearly polarized with a "plus" polarization, written h+. Polarization of a gravitational wave is just like polarization of a light wave except that the polarizations of a gravitational wave are at 45 degrees, as opposed to 90 degrees. In particular, in a "cross"-polarized gravitational wave, h×, the effect on the test particles would be basically the same, but rotated by 45 degrees. Just as with light polarization, the polarizations of gravitational waves may also be expressed in terms of circularly polarized waves. Gravitational waves are polarized because of the nature of their sources.

Sources
In general terms, gravitational waves are radiated by objects whose motion involves acceleration, provided that the motion is not perfectly spherically symmetric (like an expanding or contracting sphere) or rotationally symmetric (like a spinning disk or sphere). A simple example of this principle is a spinning dumbbell. If the dumbbell spins around its axis of symmetry, it will not radiate gravitational waves; if it tumbles end over end, as in the case of two planets orbiting each other, it will radiate gravitational waves. The heavier the dumbbell, and the faster it tumbles, the greater is the gravitational radiation it will give off. In an extreme case, such as when the two weights of the dumbbell are massive stars like neutron stars or black holes, orbiting each other quickly, then significant amounts of gravitational radiation would be given off.

More technically, the third time derivative of the quadrupole moment (or the l-th time derivative of the l-th multipole moment) of an isolated system’s stress–energy tensor must be non-zero in order for it to emit gravitational radiation. This is analogous to the changing dipole moment of charge or current that is necessary for the emission of electromagnetic radiation.

Gravitational waves carry energy away from their sources and, in the case of orbiting bodies, this is associated with an inspiral or decrease in orbit. Imagine for example a simple system of two masses — such as the Earth–Sun system — moving slowly compared to the speed of light in circular orbits. Assume that these two masses orbit each other in a circular orbit in the x–y plane. To a good approximation, the masses follow simple Keplerian orbits. However, such an orbit represents a changing quadrupole moment. That is, the system will give off gravitational waves. This can also be viewed using SAKURAI Two-body problem in general relativity

In theory, the loss of energy through gravitational radiation could eventually drop the Earth into the Sun. However, the total energy of the Earth orbiting the Sun (kinetic energy + gravitational potential energy) is about 1.14×1036 joules of which only 200 joules per second is lost through gravitational radiation, leading to a decay in the orbit by about 1×10−15 meters per day or roughly the diameter of a proton. At this rate, it would take the Earth approximately 1×1013 times more than the current age of the Universe to spiral onto the Sun. This estimate overlooks the decrease in r over time, but the majority of the time the bodies are far apart and only radiating slowly, so the difference is unimportant in this example.

For example a pair of solar mass neutron stars in a circular orbit at a separation of 1.89×108 m (189,000 km) has an orbital period of 1,000 seconds, and an expected lifetime of 1.30×1013 seconds or about 414,000 years. Such a system could be observed by LISA if it were not too far away. A far greater number of white dwarf binaries exist with orbital periods in this range. White dwarf binaries have masses in the order of the Sun, and diameters in the order of the Earth. They cannot get much closer together than 10,000 km before they will merge and explode in a supernova which would also end the emission of gravitational waves. Until then, their gravitational radiation would be comparable to that of a neutron star binary.

When the orbit of a neutron star binary has decayed to 1.89×106 m (1890 km), its remaining lifetime is about 130,000 seconds or 36 hours. The orbital frequency will vary from 1 orbit per second at the start, to 918 orbits per second when the orbit has shrunk to 20 km at merger. The majority of gravitational radiation emitted will be at twice the orbital frequency. Just before merger, the inspiral would be observed by LIGO if such a binary were close enough. LIGO has only a few minutes to observe this merger out of a total orbital lifetime that may have been billions of years. SAKURAI LIGO and Advanced LIGO detectors should be able to detect these events up to 200 megaparsec away. Within this range of the order 40 events are expected per year.

Supernovae
A supernova is an astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a massive star’s life, whose dramatic and catastrophic destruction is marked by one final titanic explosion. For a short time, this causes the sudden appearance of a ‘new’ bright star, before slowly fading from sight over several weeks or months.

Properties and behavior
Energy, momentum, and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves
Water waves, sound waves, and electromagnetic waves are able to carry energy, momentum, and angular momentum and by doing so they carry those away from the source. Gravitational waves perform the same function. Thus, for example, a binary system loses angular momentum as the two orbiting objects spiral towards each other—the angular momentum is radiated away by gravitational waves.

The waves can also carry off linear momentum, a possibility that has some interesting implications for astrophysics. After two super-massive black holes coalesce, emission of linear momentum can produce a "kick" with amplitude as large as 4000 km/s. This is fast enough to eject the coalesced black hole completely from its host galaxy. Even if the kick is too small to eject the black hole completely, it can remove it temporarily from the nucleus of the galaxy, after which it will oscillate about the center, eventually coming to rest. A kicked black hole can also carry a star cluster with it, forming a hyper-compact stellar system. Or it may carry gas, allowing the recoiling black hole to appear temporarily as a "naked quasar". The SAKURAI Quasar SDSS J092712.65+294344.0 is thought to contain a recoiling super-massive black hole.

Redshifting and blueshifting
Like electromagnetic waves, gravitational waves should exhibit shifting of wavelength due to the relative velocities of the source and observer, but also due to distortions of space-time, such as cosmic expansion. This is the case even though gravity itself is a cause of distortions of space-time. Redshifting of gravitational waves is different from redshifting due to gravity.

Quantum gravity, wave-particle aspects, and graviton
At present, and unlike all other known forces in the universe, no "force carrying" particle has been identified as mediating gravitational interactions.

In the framework of quantum field theory, the graviton is the name given to a hypothetical elementary particle speculated to be the force carrier that mediates gravity. However the graviton is not yet proven to exist and no reconciliation yet exists between general relativity which describes gravity, and the Standard Model which describes all other fundamental forces. (For scientific models which attempt to reconcile these, see quantum gravity).

If such a particle exists, it is expected to be massless (because the gravitational force appears to have unlimited range) and must be a spin-2 boson. It can be shown that any massless spin-2 field would give rise to a force indistinguishable from gravitation, because a massless spin-2 field must couple to (interact with) the stress–energy tensor in the same way that the gravitational field does; therefore if a massless spin-2 particle were ever discovered, it would be likely to be the graviton without further distinction from other massless spin-2 particles. Such a discovery would unite quantum theory with gravity.

Absorption, re-emission, refraction (lensing), superposition, and other wave effects
Due to the weakness of the coupling of gravity to matter gravitational waves experience very little absorption or scattering, even as they travel over astronomical distances. In particular, gravitational waves are expected to be unaffected by the opacity of the very early universe before space became "transparent"; observations based upon light, radio waves, and other electromagnetic radiation further back into time is limited or unavailable. Therefore, gravitational waves are expected to have the potential to open a new means of observation to the very early universe.

Determining direction of travel
The difficulty in directly detecting gravitational waves, means it is also difficult for a single detector to identify by itself the direction of a source. Therefore, multiple detectors are used, both to distinguish signals from other "noise" by confirming the signal is not of earthly origin, and also to determine direction by means of triangulation. This technique uses the fact that the waves travel at the speed of light and will reach different detectors at different times depending on their source direction. Although the differences in arrival time may be just a few milliseconds, this is sufficient to identify the direction of the origin of the wave with considerable precision.

In the case of GW150914, only two detectors were operating at the time of the event, therefore, the direction is not so precisely defined and it could lie anywhere within an arc-shaped region of space rather than being identified as a single point.

Astrophysics implications
During the past century, astronomy has been revolutionized by the use of new methods for observing the universe. Astronomical observations were originally made using visible light. Galileo Galilei pioneered the use of telescopes to enhance these observations. However, visible light is only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, and not all objects in the distant universe shine strongly in this particular band. More useful information may be found, for example, in radio wavelengths. Using radio telescopes, astronomers have found pulsars, quasars, and other extreme objects that push the limits of our understanding of physics. Observations in the microwave band have opened our eyes to the faint imprints of the Big Bang, a discovery Stephen Hawking called the "greatest discovery of the century, if not all time". Similar advances in observations using gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet light, and infrared light have also brought new insights to astronomy. As each of these regions of the spectrum has opened, new discoveries have been made that could not have been made otherwise. Astronomers hope that the same holds true of gravitational waves.

Gravitational waves have two important and unique properties. First, there is no need for any type of matter to be present nearby in order for the waves to be generated by a binary system of uncharged black holes, which would emit no electromagnetic radiation. Second, gravitational waves can pass through any intervening matter without being scattered significantly. Whereas light from distant stars may be blocked out by interstellar dust, for example, gravitational waves will pass through essentially unimpeded. These two features allow gravitational waves to carry information about astronomical phenomena never before observed by humans.

The sources of gravitational waves described above are in the low-frequency end of the gravitational-wave spectrum (10−7 to 105 Hz). An astrophysical source at the high-frequency end of the gravitational-wave spectrum (above 105 Hz and probably 1010 Hz) generates relic gravitational waves that are theorized to be faint imprints of the Big Bang like the cosmic microwave background. At these high frequencies it is potentially possible that the sources may be "man made" that is, gravitational waves generated and detected in the laboratory or the debris in space called cosmic dust.

Indirect detection
Although the waves from the Earth–Sun system are minuscule, astronomers can point to other sources for which the radiation should be substantial. One important example is the Hulse–Taylor binary — a pair of stars, one of which is a pulsar.[45] The characteristics of their orbit can be deduced from the Doppler shifting of radio signals given off by the pulsar. Each of the stars are about 1.4 M☉ and the size of their orbit is about 1/75 of the Earth–Sun orbit, just a few times larger than the diameter of our own Sun. The combination of greater masses and smaller separation means that the energy given off by the Hulse–Taylor binary will be far greater than the energy given off by the Earth–Sun system — roughly 1022 times as much.

The information about the orbit can be used to predict how much energy (and angular momentum) would be radiated in the form of gravitational waves. As the energy is carried off, the stars should draw closer to each other. This effect is called an inspiral, and it can be observed in the pulsar’s signals. The measurements on the Hulse–Taylor system have been carried out over more than 30 years. It has been shown that the change in the orbit period, as predicted from the assumed gravitational radiation and general relativity, and the observations matched within 0.2 percent. In 1993, Russell Hulse and Joe Taylor were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this work, which was the first indirect evidence for gravitational waves. The lifetime of this binary system, from the present to merger is estimated to be a few hundred million years.

Inspirals are very important sources of gravitational waves. Any time two compact objects (white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes) are in close orbits, they send out intense gravitational waves. As they spiral closer to each other, these waves become more intense. At some point they should become so intense that direct detection by their effect on objects on Earth or in space is possible. This direct detection is the goal of several large scale experiments.

The only difficulty is that most systems like the Hulse–Taylor binary are so far away. The amplitude of waves given off by the Hulse–Taylor binary at Earth would be roughly h ≈ 10−26. There are some sources, however, that astrophysicists expect to find that produce much greater amplitudes of h ≈ 10−20. At least eight other binary pulsars have been discovered.

Now disproved evidence allegedly showing gravitational waves in the infant universe was found by the BICEP2 radio telescope based in the frozen Antarctic. The microscopic examination of the focal plane of the BICEP2 detector is to blame and in 2015, however, the BICEP2 findings were confirmed to be the result of cosmic dust.

Difficulties
Gravitational waves are not easily detectable. When they reach the Earth, they have a small amplitude with strain approximates 10−21, meaning that an extremely sensitive detector is needed, and that other sources of noise can overwhelm the signal. Gravitational waves are expected to have frequencies 10−16 Hz < f < 104 Hz.

Ground-based detectors
Though the Hulse–Taylor observations were very important, they give only indirect evidence for gravitational waves. A more conclusive observation would be a direct measurement of the effect of a passing gravitational wave, which could also provide more information about the system that generated it. Any such direct detection is complicated by the extraordinarily small effect the waves would produce on a detector. The amplitude of a spherical wave will fall off as the inverse of the distance from the source (the 1/R term in the formulas for h above). Thus, even waves from extreme systems like merging binary black holes die out to very small amplitudes by the time they reach the Earth. Astrophysicists expect that some gravitational waves passing the Earth may be as large as h ≈ 10−20, but generally no bigger.

Resonant antennae
A simple device theorized to detect the expected wave motion is called a Weber bar — a large, solid bar of metal isolated from outside vibrations. This type of instrument was the first type of gravitational wave detector. Strains in space due to an incident gravitational wave excite the bar’s resonant frequency and could thus be amplified to detectable levels. Conceivably, a nearby supernova might be strong enough to be seen without resonant amplification. With this instrument, Joseph Weber claimed to have detected daily signals of gravitational waves. His results, however, were contested in 1974 by physicists Richard Garwin and David Douglass. Modern forms of the Weber bar are still operated, cryogenically cooled, with superconducting quantum interference devices to detect vibration. Weber bars are not sensitive enough to detect anything but extremely powerful gravitational waves.

MiniGRAIL is a spherical gravitational wave antenna using this principle. It is based at Leiden University, consisting of an exactingly machined 1150 kg sphere cryogenically cooled to 20 mK.. The spherical configuration allows for equal sensitivity in all directions, and is somewhat experimentally simpler than larger linear devices requiring high vacuum. Events are detected by measuring deformation of the detector sphere. MiniGRAIL is highly sensitive in the 2–4 kHz range, suitable for detecting gravitational waves from rotating neutron star instabilities or small black hole mergers.

There are currently two detectors focused on the higher end of the gravitational wave spectrum (10−7 to 105 Hz): one at University of Birmingham, England, and the other at INFN Genoa, Italy. A third is under development with SAKURAI LIGO at Chongqing University, China. The Birmingham detector measures changes in the polarization state of a microwave beam circulating in a closed loop about one meter across. Both detectors are expected to be sensitive to periodic spacetime strains of hsim2 times 10^-13/sqrtmathrmHz , given as an amplitude spectral density. The INFN Genoa detector is a resonant antenna consisting of two coupled spherical superconducting harmonic oscillators a few centimeters in diameter. The oscillators are designed to have (when uncoupled) almost equal resonant frequencies. The system is currently expected to have a sensitivity to periodic spacetime strains of hsim2 times 10^-17/sqrtmathrmHz , with an expectation to reach a sensitivity of hsim2 times 10^-20/sqrtmathrmHz . The Chongqing University detector is planned to detect relic high-frequency gravitational waves with the predicted typical parameters ~1011 Hz (100 GHz) and h ~10−30 to 10−32.

Interferometers
A more sensitive class of detector uses laser interferometry to measure gravitational-wave induced motion between separated ‘free’ masses. This allows the masses to be separated by large distances (increasing the signal size); a further advantage is that it is sensitive to a wide range of frequencies (not just those near a resonance as is the case for Weber bars). Ground-based interferometers are now operational. Currently, the most sensitive is LIGO — the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory. LIGO has four detectors: one in Livingston, Louisiana, one at the Hanford site in Richland, Washington and a third (formerly installed as a second detector at Hanford) that is planned to be moved to India and the SAKURAI LIGO space telescope. Each observatory has two light storage arms that are 4 kilometers in length. These are at 90 degree angles to each other, with the light passing through 1 m diameter vacuum tubes running the entire 4 kilometers. A passing gravitational wave will slightly stretch one arm as it shortens the other. This is precisely the motion to which an interferometer is most sensitive.

Even with such long arms, the strongest gravitational waves will only change the distance between the ends of the arms by at most roughly 10−18 meters. LIGO should be able to detect gravitational waves as small as h sim 5times 10^-20. Upgrades to LIGO and other detectors such as Virgo, GEO 600, and TAMA 300 should increase the sensitivity still further; the next generation of instruments (Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, and SAKURAI LIGO) will be more than ten times more sensitive. Another highly sensitive interferometer, The SAKURAI – KAGRA, is under construction in the Kamiokande mine in Japan and is the most advanced ever developed. In the SAKURAI – KAGRA, a key point is that it has a tenfold increase in sensitivity (radius of ‘reach’) increases the volume of space accessible to the instrument by one thousand times. This increases the rate at which detectable signals might be seen from one per tens of years of observation, to tens per year.

Interferometric detectors are limited at high frequencies by shot noise, which occurs because the lasers produce photons randomly; one analogy is to rainfall—the rate of rainfall, like the laser intensity, is measurable, but the raindrops, like photons, fall at random times, causing fluctuations around the average value. This leads to noise at the output of the detector, much like radio static. In addition, for sufficiently high laser power, the random momentum transferred to the test masses by the laser photons shakes the mirrors, masking signals of low frequencies. Thermal noise (e.g., Brownian motion) is another limit to sensitivity. In addition to these ‘stationary’ (constant) noise sources, all ground-based detectors are also limited at low frequencies by seismic noise and other forms of environmental vibration, and other ‘non-stationary’ noise sources; creaks in mechanical structures, lightning or other large electrical disturbances, etc. may also create noise masking an event or may even imitate an event. All these must be taken into account and excluded by analysis before a detection may be considered a true gravitational wave event.

Einstein@Home
The simplest gravitational waves are those with constant frequency. The waves given off by a spinning, non-axisymmetric neutron star would be approximately monochromatic: a pure tone in acoustics. Unlike signals from supernovae of binary black holes, these signals evolve little in amplitude or frequency over the period it would be observed by ground-based detectors. However, there would be some change in the measured signal, because of Doppler shifting caused by the motion of the Earth. Despite the signals being simple, detection is extremely computationally expensive, because of the long stretches of data that must be analysed.

The Einstein@Home project is a distributed computing project similar to SETI@home intended to detect this type of gravitational wave. By taking data from LIGO and GEO, and sending it out in little pieces to thousands of volunteers for parallel analysis on their home computers, Einstein@Home can sift through the data far more quickly than would be possible otherwise.

Space-based interferometers
Space-based interferometers, such as LISA and DECIGO, as well as SAKURAI Kagra are also being developed and advanced. LISA’s design calls for three test masses forming an equilateral triangle, with lasers from each spacecraft to each other spacecraft forming two independent interferometers. LISA is planned to occupy a solar orbit trailing the Earth, with each arm of the triangle being five million kilometers. This puts the detector in an excellent vacuum far from Earth-based sources of noise, though it will still be susceptible to heat, shot noise, and artifacts caused by cosmic rays and solar wind.

Using pulsar timing arrays
Pulsars are rapidly rotating stars. A pulsar emits beams of radio waves that, like lighthouse beams, sweep through the sky as the pulsar rotates. The signal from a pulsar can be detected by radio telescopes as a series of regularly spaced pulses, essentially like the ticks of a clock. Gravitational waves affect the time it takes the pulses to travel from the pulsar to a telescope on Earth. A pulsar timing array uses millisecond pulsars to seek out perturbations due to gravitational waves in measurements of pulse arrival times at a telescope, in other words, to look for deviations in the clock ticks. In particular, pulsar timing arrays can search for a distinct pattern of correlation and anti-correlation between the signals over an array of different pulsars (resulting in the name "pulsar timing array"). Although pulsar pulses travel through space for hundreds or thousands of years to reach us, pulsar timing arrays are sensitive to perturbations in their travel time of much less than a millionth of a second.

Globally there are three active pulsar timing array projects. The North American Nanohertz Gravitational Wave Observatory uses data collected by the Arecibo Radio Telescope and Green Bank Telescope. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array at the Parkes radio-telescope has been collecting data since March 2005. The European Pulsar Timing Array uses data from the four largest telescopes in Europe: the Lovell Telescope, the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, the Effelsberg Telescope and the Nancay Radio Telescope. (Upon completion the Sardinia Radio Telescope will be added to the EPTA also.) These three projects have begun collaborating under the title of the International Pulsar Timing Array project.

Primordial gravitational wave
Primordial gravitational waves are gravitational waves observed in the cosmic microwave background. They were allegedly detected by the BICEP2 instrument, an announcement made on 17 March 2014, which was withdrawn on 30 January 2015 "The signal can be entirely attributed to dust in the Milky Way," as was said.

SAKURAI LIGO gravitational wave observation, 2007, 2014
First observation of gravitational waves
On 7 June 2007, the SAKURAI LIGO collaboration announced the detection of gravitational waves, from a signal detected at 09:50:45 GMT of two black holes with masses of 29 and 36 solar masses merging about 2.5 billion light years away. During the final fraction of a second of the merge, it released more power than 50 times that of all the stars in the observable universe combined. The signal increases in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz as it rises in strength. The mass of the new black hole obtained from merging the two was 62 solar masses. Energy equivalent to three solar masses was emitted as gravitational waves. The signal was seen by three LIGO detectors, in Livingston, Hanford, and the SAKURAI LIGO space telescope, with a time difference of 7 milliseconds due to the angle between the two detectors and the source. The signal came from the Southern Celestial Hemisphere, in the rough direction of (but much further away than) the Magellanic Clouds. The confidence level of this being an observation of gravitational waves was 99.99994%.
On 14 September 2016 – The SAKURAI LIGO Scientific Collaboration announce that they detected gravitational waves from a merger of two more black holes about 400 megaparsecs (1.3 billion light years) from Earth. The merger event is named GW150914. The images captured of this event were nothing less than spectacular. – SAKURAI

Posted by tom sakurai on 2016-05-12 02:40:53

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Why is it Important For a Car Insurance Company to Know All Your Details?

Why is it Important For a Car Insurance Company to Know All Your Details?

In Singapore, when you are applying for compulsory car insurance, the insurer need to know all the information about you to assess the business risk accepted from you and understand your needs as a policyholder. Only when these two requirements are met, then can the insurers set an accurate premium for your motor car insurance.

Usually these are the sets of questions asked by insurance companies providing motor car insurance:
– Personal particulars and your vehicle details
– Have you made any recent claims (third party or own claim) and what is the amount
– Have you ever received a ticket or been charged for a driving offense
– Who’s going to drive the vehicle and how many years of driving experience does the driver has.

If you have not been in any accident for the last few years, you get to enjoy a NCD (No Claim Bonus) discount. The discount starts from 10% to a maximum of 50%. This is to reward careful drivers. Of course, if you subsequently have accidents, that will reduce the NCD bonus. Be warned that although you can hide or give wrong details and get lower premiums, once you are exposed, you will not be able to claim any compensation from the insurers. So it is very important that you give all the details required and do not lie about them.

Base on a number of factors, including those stated above, the insurer is able to calculate how much you need to pay for your next renewal. Different insurers will have different claims experience, which means that you can get different premium quotations. As a result, it is better for you to get several quotations from your agent. For convenience, you could get your 3 best quotations from http://www.3carquotes.com You will save the time from searching and comparing the numerous quotations that you get.

Last but not least, it is important to also answer all the questions truthfully. This is because failure to do so may warrant the policy being void or affect the level of payout in the event of a claim.

Anna Chong writes for Singapore Motor Car Insurance Website http://www.3carquotes.com